1.1 Research theories of management and leadership.
1.2 Analyze how theoretical models of management and leadership can be applied to a range of situations in a work setting.
1.3 Analyze how the values and cultural context of an organization influence the application of management and leadership models.
To distinguish Leadership from Management has become very popular over recent years; however increasing evidence indicates that Leadership is not the same as management. The differences include;
|LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS||MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS|
|Creating an agenda||Establishing direction: Vision of the future, develop strategies for change to achieve goals||Plans and budgets: Decide action plans and timetables, allocate resources|
|Developing people||Aligning people: Communicate vision and strategy, influence creation of teams which accept validity of goals||Organizing and staffing: Decide structure and allocate staff, develop policies, procedures and monitoring|
|Execution||Motivating and inspiring: Energize people to overcome obstacles, satisfy human needs||Controlling, problem solving: Monitor results against plan and take corrective action|
|Outcomes||Produces positive and sometimes dramatic change||Produces order, consistency and predictability|
Figure 1: Leadership and Management (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004, p 718 – based on Kotter, 1990)
There are numerous theories about Leadership and management however two distinguishing aspects have been identified which includes; transactional and transformational. Transactional leadership views leadership as an exchange between leader and follower. At its most basic this transaction involves the exchange of reward for work while transformational leaders would raise the consciousness of its followers about issues of consequence and subsequently transform followers into leaders themselves.
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This is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. This leadership style develops valuable and positive change in the followers and transforms its followers into leaders. Transformational leaders are role models to their followers; they inspire and challenge them to take greater ownership of their work. Also the leader would have great understanding of its followers’ strengths and weaknesses so they can align them with tasks that would optimise their performance.
James MacGregor Burns (1978) distinguished two patterns of leadership which included transactional and transforming based on his observations. According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which “leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation”. The transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It would redesign the perceptions and values, and would also change expectations and aspirations of employees. It is not like the transactional approach which is based on a “give and take” relationship, but on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. He theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles. Transactional leaders would work in the organisations’ existing culture while transformational leaders would strive for cultural change.
Bernard M. Bass (1985) read and reviewed the work of Burns (1978). Bass developed a model of transformational leadership, with four roles of the transformational leader;
- Inspirational Motivation
The leader as a visionary, who makes people feel like a part of something big and worthwhile – energising and concerned with purpose and meaning.
- Individualised Attention
The leader is people-focused and celebrates diversity and builds relationships. He makes each member of the team feel that the leader knows me, respects me, is interested in me, and helps me.
- Intellectual Stimulation
He or she stretches their followers to learn, grow and perform to exceptional levels and values intellect, encourages imagination, challenges the old ways. The leader also place emphasis on developing their people, strategic thinking, and constructive challenge. They are proficient at seeing and working with different points of view.
- Idealised Influence
The leader is a role model who inspires respect and the desire to follow, through their personal integrity. He or she sets and displays high ethical standards, walking the talk, being honest, open, fair, and principled, and setting and living up to strong values.
James MacGregor Burns – Transactional Leadership
Burns described Transactional leadership as one that would create relationship between the leaders and his/her followers based on reciprocity. The followers will provide all required support to the leader and will be rewarded with recognitions, praises, status, pay and ratings.
BUREAUCRATIC (TRANSACTIONAL) BUREAUCRACY
Weber described this leadership style as the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge.
LEWIN’S LEADERSHIP STYLES
In 1935 Psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three styles of leadership with a group of researchers.
1. Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)
Autocratic leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to be done when it should be done, and how it should be done. This leadership style is strongly focused on both command by the leader and control of the followers. It establishes a clear division between the leader and the members. They make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.
Decision-making was less creative under authoritarian leadership according to research. This leadership style is usually viewed as controlling, bossy, and dictatorial and tends to create hostile environments. It would often pit followers against the leader.
2. Participative Leadership (Democratic)
Lewin’s study found that democratic leadership is typically the most effective leadership style. This leadership style offers guidance to its followers, but they also participate in the group and allow input from the followers. Democratic leaders encourage its followers to participate but retain the final say in the decision-making process. The followers feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. Democratic leaders make followers feel like they are an important part of the team, which helps foster commitment to the goals of the group.
3. Delegative Leadership (Laissez-Faire)
Researchers found that laissez-faire leadership, were the least productive of all three groups. The followers tend to make more demands on the leader, would show little cooperation, and unable to work independently.
Delegative leaders offer little or no guidance to its followers and leave decision-making up to them. Lewin noted that laissez-faire leadership tended to result in followers that lacked direction and would blame each other for mistakes, refuse to accept personal responsibility, and produce a lack of progress and work.
SCENARIO: Managed a staff who hardly recognised management authority and whose attitude affected the general team dynamics which impacted the productivity and effectiveness of the teams’ performance.
I used different leadership styles to improve his attitudinal problems and motivated him to operate to the fullest of his potentials.
Firstly I used the autocratic and bureaucratic leadership styles together to establish a clear division between my role and theirs and made him aware of the consequences of breaching the trusts’ code of conduct policy. I discussed the HR policies relating to conduct with him in supervision and made him know of my expectations from him.
Secondly, I used the transformational and delegative leadership style by giving him special attention and appreciating his strengths and skills and aligned him with tasks that optimised his performance. In fact I created a leader because he became very effective in managing all tasks delegated to him and developed a sense of ownership and responsibility for ensuring the safety of the service.
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This is very important in the workplace. The ability to prioritise activities at workplace and allocate time and required resources for such activities is vital to the productivity of the team. Time management theories can help to achieve this. For example, setting SMART goals is an effective way of setting clear objectives and timescales to achieve those objectives. A work package can be delegated to a staff, set targets for them, make them accountable which shows that you trust and have confidence in them.
1. Pareto Principle
This was formulated by Italian economist and philosopher Vilfredo Pareto which is also referred to as the 80-20 rule.It states that the vast majority of impact in anything comes from a small proportion of activities, people or effort. The observation was based on demographic data in Italy. 80% of the land was owned by 20% of the population. And 80% of productivity from these lands came from 20% of those working on it.
The 20% who made things happen were generally more efficient, managed time better, and streamlined operations for the highest leverage. Based on this theory, time management guides and coaches advice you to focus on the 20% of activities or tasks that are more important to the overall success. The effort and time that you devote to this creamy layer will more than outweigh what you invest into the rest, because there will be little if any impact on your bottom line.
2. Pickle Jar Theory
Another time management theory that is easy to understand and execute is taught using a pickle jar. When you take an empty pickle jar and fill it with rocks, it appears to be full – until you fill it with gravel. The smaller granules fill the cracks between the rocks, and you can still fit in some sand, and then water.
But go about it the other way and add water or sand to the bottle first, and you won’t be able to later slip in the rocks. In a time management perspective, you will similarly be able to get less important work done in the spaces between and after major projects or tasks. But if you let trivia take up much of your working day, there won’t be enough time left for you to tackle what really matters.
With these theories in mind it is important to manage time wisely. I will need to ensure enough members of staff are available on all shifts and that breaks are staggered, annual leave is taken in agreement with other members of staff and in line with tusts’ policy to ensure enough cover is available, training and meetings are at times which will not affect the workplace in a detrimental way etc.
There are times that I motivate my staff members. Generally every staff wants a secure rewarding job with good working relationships and the opportunity for upward mobility. Knowing what each member of staff wants from their role is an important step that enables me to engage with them in such a way that they give me their very best performance.
According to the psychologist Fredrick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (sometimes known as Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory), the factors that cause job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that cause job dissatisfaction. According to him, eliminating the job dissatisfaction factors will not necessarily enhance performance but can only create peace e.g. competitive wages will bring peace but not enhance performance however recognising peoples’ contributions would enhance performance.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ or EI)
This term was created by two researchers; Peter Salavoy and John Mayer and popularized by Dan Goleman in his 1996 book of the same name. EI is defined as the ability to:
- Recognize, understand and manage our own emotions
- Recognize, understand and influence the emotions of others
In practical terms, this means being aware that emotions can drive our behavior and impact people (positively and negatively), and learning how to manage those emotions (both our own and others) especially when we are under pressure.
I use this theory during situations when a staff member needs disciplinary action. It means taking into consideration how they may be feeling and how they may react to my words. It is important in such situations that my own feelings are kept in check and not allow them to influence my professionalism.
Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. The culture of an organisation is its personality and character. Organisational culture is made up of shared values, beliefs and assumptions about how people should behave and interact, how decisions should be made and how work activities should be carried out. Key factors in an organisation’s culture include its history and environment as well as the people who lead and work for it. Organisational culture is the way that things are done in an organisation, the unwritten rules that influence individual and group behaviour and attitudes.
For effective leadership, where leaders and managers are better placed to implement strategy and achieve their goals, it is vital to have an understanding of organisational culture. Trying to introduce strategies that are inconsistent with organisational culture are likely to meet with resistance and will be more difficult or even impossible to implement. Strategies that are in line with it will be easier to put into effect and more likely to succeed. Managers will usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization. Good interactions between the leadership and employees is essential. Employees are more likely to contribute and collaborate to accomplish your organisations mission and objectives, when they feel involved and consulted.
In Health and social care, much of the ways in which an organisation must work are dictated by legislation, regulations, codes of practice and the governing body, The Care Quality Commission. They set down the rules and regulations which must be adhered to by each care establishment. Failure to meet these criteria can result in fines, closure of the establishment or company and even imprisonment. As well as being aware of the different styles of leadership, the rapidly changing context of health and social care means that leaders must anticipate and be responsive to new policies and initiatives that impact on how they work. In doing so, they need to approach leadership as a collective endeavour to which all members of a team can contribute in order to achieve the organisation’s vision. Also, a leader with an effective vision, helps everyone to know what they are doing and why they are doing it. Working in health and social care, a unit that is working towards a well-defined and well-communicated vision will create safer practice environments for, and enhance the quality of, care for service users
The difference between a team and a random group of people is that a team has a common purpose, goal or objective. If a work team does not achieve the required result or a meaningful result, it will become frustrated. Organisations have a core task: to provide a service, to make a profit, or even to survive. Achieving objectives is a major criterion of success for a leader.
In order to achieve these objectives, the team needs to be held together. Each person needs to be working in a coordinated fashion in the same direction. Effective teamwork will ensure that the contribution of the team is greater than the sum of its parts. Conflict within the team must be used effectively: disagreements can be productive and lead to new ideas, or they can be unproductive, creating tension and a lack of cooperation
Within working teams, individuals also have their own set of needs. They need to know what their responsibilities are and how well they are performing. They need an opportunity to demonstrate their potential and take on responsibility, and they need to receive recognition for good work (Adair, 2002, 2007).
• Albritton, R. L. (1998). A new paradigm of leader effectiveness for academic libraries: An empirical study of the Bass (1985) model of transformational leadership. In T.F. Mech & G.B. McCabe (Eds.), Leadership and academic librarians (pp. 66–82) . Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998.
• Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.
• Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (Eds.). (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformationalleadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
• Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York. Harper & Row.
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