The purpose of this study is to help understand and bring awareness to educate more people on the parenting styles and the effects on children. Functionalism was the theory used to understand the view of society as a structure and its dynamics creating different parenting styles. The method the researcher used to help better understand the dynamics of parenting styles and the effects on children is a meta-analysis. Findings in the research concluded that positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents was protective against peer victimization (Lereyaa, Sanarab, Wolkec, 2013). Exposure to domestic violence has a negative effect on children (Malik & Irshad, 2012). Lack of peer-reviewed articles in search engines used limited the researcher on resources. Money and time were limitations when accessing full information to research. Researchers have recommended continued observation of parenting styles along with studying and the use of sociometric questionnaires of parenting styles to better help understand the different effects they have on children (Aunola, Stattin, Nurmi, 2000).
parenting styles, meta-analysis, violence
Parenting Styles and Effects on Children
In this study, parenting styles and effects on children will be the main topic studied. The purpose of this study is to help understand and bring awareness to educate more people on the parenting styles and the effects on children. Parenting styles and a parent-child relationship has been found to be a factor in child academic success (Inam, Nomaan, Muhammad, 2016). Education on the numerous studies documenting high rates of witnessing violence in communities among adolescents (Mazefsky & Farrell, 2005) and awareness to variables involved in parenting styles and effects on children. The research method used was a meta-analysis. The theory to best explain parenting styles and effects on children causing drug use, violence in schools, abuse of technology, and shifting factors in academic rates was shown by using functionalism.
The purpose of this study is to help understand and bring awareness to educate more people on the parenting styles and the effects on children. Bringing awareness to better parenting styles and techniques have been shown to relate various outcomes such as child psychological problems and academic performance (Turner, Chandler, Heffer, 2009). Providing educating styles that are constant with parenting socialization practices found to increase the children's risk of acting out and leading to the involvement of drug use (Kandel, 1990). A problem of underachievement is growing, making it a great concern for educators of young adolescents (Abiodullah, Inam, Nomaan, 2016). If not studied, violence and bullying will be a regular part of the school day for an increasing number of students (Lunenburg, 2010). Exposure to domestic violence creates a negative impact on a child's emotional and behavioral state (Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, Jaffe, 2003). Families of drug users rarely have been studied in general population samples (Kandel, 1990). Commonly used methods are collecting data by using confidential questionnaires that are effectively performed to help with the research (Abiodullah, Inam, Nomaan, 2016). To help understand the problem and topic, meta-analysis will be thoroughly used going through analysis recently published by peer-reviewed articles. Using meta-analysis facilitates the synthesis of many studies (Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, Jaffe, 2003) and takes the results from independent studies and transforms them into a common statistic (Bonta, Law, Hanson, 1998).
The theory used in this research functionalism, a structural-functional theory, views society as a structure by connecting way that is used to help meet the biological and social needs of the individual in that society (Bry et al., 2017). It will be used to find an approach to how society can assist children affected by parents and their parenting styles of drug use, violence, abuse of electronics, and academic achievements (Bry et al., 2017). Conflict theory, a macro-level approach, separates society into different classes and seeing it as a competition for limited resources (Bry et al., 2017). Symbolic interactionism, a micro-level theory, is when two people use language and symbols to make sense of their social worlds (Bry et al., 2017). These two theories will not be used in this research because both language and symbols, nor separation of the class would apply parenting styles that affect children (Bry et al., 2017). The following paragraph will explain the methodology used in the research.
Meta-analysis is a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together (Griffiths, Keirns, Cody-Rydzewski, Scaramuzzo, Sadler, Vyain, Bry, Jones, 2015). The research took 10 hours a week in the duration of one semester to discover the different dynamics in parenting styles and effects on children causing drug use, school violence, abuse of technology, and shifting factors in academic rates. The research was conducted by one student. The student dedicated 15 weeks into helping understand the overall effect of parenting styles and effects on children. During research of parenting styles and effects on children, no involvement of human subjects as a prerequisite for publication (Amdur & Biddle, 1997) was used, therefore no review approval by an Internal Review Board (IRB) (Silberman & Kahn) was needed.
Information for the meta-analysis was gathered by inserting keywords parenting, violence, and drug abuse. Most particular, ‘parenting styles with single parenting and drug abuse in adolescents’. The library search engine Discovery search was used from southtexascollege.edu website. In addition, google scholar was used to searching for additional keywords as a second article. Two articles were found using the google scholar search engine using ‘parenting styles and drug abuse’ as keywords. Articles found in southtexascollege.edu library were narrowed dates published in 2014-2018. Online items were based on limiters followed by checking off scholarly journals-peer reviewed and full-text box. The researcher typed in parenting styles and found one article. The researcher also typed in drug abuse finding two articles. Google scholar articles dates were customized by the years 2014-2018 using full text. In google scholar, the researcher typed in parenting styles and found three articles. The researcher searched by typing in single parenting effects and found two articles.
Single parents had higher scores on the subscales of depression, anxiety, and stress (Malik & Irshad, 2012). The following four articles were in favor of the topic researched, the role of witnessing violence, peer provocation, family support, and parenting practices in the aggressive behavior of rural adolescents (Mazefsky & Farrell, 2005), parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully (Lereyaa , Samarab, Wolkec, 2013), the effects of children’s exposure to domestic violence (Wolfe , Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, Jaffe, 2003), parenting styles, drug use, and children’s adjustment in families of young adults (Kandel, 1990). Victims and bullies are likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse, neglect, and maladaptive parenting (Lereyaa, Samarab, Wolkec, 2013). Exposure to domestic violence has a negative effect on children (Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, Jaffe, 2003). Family disorganization, lack of parental monitoring and discipline, and the absence of we-defined rules are crucial in promoting, antisocial behavior in children (Kandel, 1990). Stress, competence, and parental education styles in victims (Garaigordobil & Machimbarrena, 2017) was against topic researched. No differences were found in parental competence or in the use of authoritative and balanced parenting styles. Common methodologies were samples, data, and meta-analysis (Aunola, Stattin, Nurmi, 2000) (Garaigordobil & Machimbarrena, 2017) (Lundahl, Risser, Lovejoy, 2005). Recommendations suggest parenting styles play an important role in the development of adolescents' achievement strategies (Aunola, Stattin, Nurmi, 2000). Limitations will be discussed in the next paragraph.
Limitations provide researchers with unique opportunities for collecting data (Lefever, Dal, Matthiasdottir, 2007). The researcher had no experience prior to this research, making this a primary limitation for this study. A total of five hours per week were used for research. Due to time being a limitation international and U.S articles were used in this research.
Money was a limitation when accessing full information to research when using Google Scholar using keywords ‘parenting styles'. Using search engine southtexascollege.edu library was limited on peer-reviewed articles creating a limitation.
Recommended future studies might use sociometric questionnaires to identify victims and aggressors (Garaigordobil & Machimbarrena, 2017). The researcher would recommend using case studies for future research. Questionnaires can be used to understand the topic and problem. Continued studies using adult population would be beneficial in understanding parenting styles. The conclusion to research will be discussed in the next paragraph.
The purpose of this study is to understand parenting styles and effects on children. The method used was a meta-analysis. Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents, affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. (Lereyaa, Samarab, Wolkec, 2013). Money was a limitation when accessing full information to research. Recommended future studies might use sociometric questionnaires to identify victims and aggressors (Garaigordobil & Machimbarrena, 2017).
- Aunola K., Stattin H., And Nurmi J.E. (200) Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies Journal of Adolescence
- Bry et al., (2017) Introduction to sociology
- Garaigordobil M., and Machimbarrena J.M. (2017) Stress, competence, and parental educational styles in victims
- Inam A., Nomaan S., and Abiodullah M. (2016) Parents’ parenting styles and academic achievement- bulletin of education and research
- Kandel D. B. (1990) Parenting styles, drug use, and children’s adjustment in families of young adult’s sources: Journal of marriage and family
- Lereyaa S.T., Samarab M., Wolkec, D. (2013) Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study child abuse & neglect
- Lundahl B., Risser. H. J., Lovejoy M.C. (2005) A meta-analysis of parenting training: moderators and follow-up effects clinical psychology review
- Malik T. A., Irshad N. (2012) Parental depression, stress, anxiety, and childhood behavior problems among single-parent families
- Mazefsky, M.S. C.A., Farrell Ph.D. A.D, (2005) The role of witnessing violence, peer provocation, family support, and parenting practices in the aggressive behavior of rural adolescents’ Journal of Child and Family Studies
- Wolfe D. A., Crooks C.V., Lee V., McIntyre-Smith A., Jaffe P.G. (2003) The effects of children’s exposure to domestic violence: A meta-analysis and critique clinical child and Family Psychology Review