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Direct Manipulation Principles

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Computer Science
Wordcount: 1221 words Published: 11th Dec 2017

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Three Major Principles of Direct Manipulation

  • Process based on selection, interrupted and visible performance of object
  • Process based on selection is immediately displayed, which works fast, incremental and two sided actions
  • Process based on selection using pointing action instead of typed commands (No Syntax)

Advantages of Direct Manipulation

  • Beginners learn Quickly
  • Seldom users can remember concepts
  • Getting error messages are not often
  • Users finds their actions are promoting their goals
  • User friendly

Potential Problems of Direct Manipulation

  • Visual representation can be too detail
  • High-level flowchart & database schema can become confusing
  • Design may mislead to their goals
  • User must know the meaning of images which is displayed
  • Typing commands or using short keys with the keyboard may be faster


Two Hardware Technologies which detect multi-finger action

Microsoft Surface and Microsoft Touch wall are some of the two hardware technologies which detect multi-finger action.


Microsoft Surface Mechanism:

  • Microsoft Surface has a rugged table top structure, with powerful processors and intuitive interface, which is versatile and horizontal viewing.
  • Microsoft Surface is multi-touch computer which grabs digital substance with your hands and move with simple touches instead of using mouse and keyboard
  • Microsoft Surface use camera and image recognition in a infrared spectrum to detect with sense of objects such as fingers, tagged items & shapes
  • The input is then processed by computer and the sequent interaction is displayed using rear projection
  • Microsoft Surface is based on Windows Vista SP1 operating system and it has 30 inch XGA DLP projector with maximum resolution, pressure & load.


  • It makes convenient work space and easy to use
  • It is used in hotel to speed up the self check – ins
  • It is used in restaurants to order and pay from their tables


  • It is very expensive
  • People are more dependent on technology

Microsoft Touch Wall Mechanism:

  • Touch Wall is built on plex technology
  • Plex provides touch wall with fresh and fleshed out ways to prepare a natural interface
  • Touch wall is large organization exhibit prototype and undergo collaborative work
  • Touch wall uses a laser touch technique which observes infrared laser light speculating off the users fingers
  • Touch wall explores a different hardware configuration and multi-touch interaction models


  • Touch wall is very intuitive
  • Easy to use
  • Save Space
  • It is faster pointing devices


  • It is very expensive
  • Size of the device is very large and difficult to transfer from one place to another place.

General Advantage of multi-touch Interaction

  • Multi-touch grabs digital substance with hands and more with simple touch
  • It is more flexible to learn & understand
  • User can rotate and zoom the window
  • It supports the interaction between different users.
  • Users can switch between different task spontaneously
  • Instead of making devices with different button, soft machines just draw a picture of the devices

Potential problems of using multi-touch Interaction

  • It is very expensive
  • Size is very big
  • It requires two hands to operate
  • On large displays many objects are out of focus
  • Very object of the user is manipulating
  • It has reflective display but it is not usable in bright sunlight’s


Multi-touch Interaction Supported in the user interface of iPhone

  • iPhone is described of Internet and multimedia enable smartphones designed by Apple Inc.
  • Most of the users have satisfaction on using the iphone and users increases the usage of email data function
  • By surveying the iphone users, they have previous apple experience and they are technically sophisticated, most of the iphone users are students and age under 30 years.
  • In mobile industry iPhone increases service billing of about 24% because it displacing the notebook computers.
  • Apple iphone increases some new application with the help of surveying by the iphone users
  • The iPhone users has moderate capable problems who strongly agreed of 24%, Mildly agreed of 38%, Mildly disagreed of 28%, Strongly disagreed of 10%
  • iPhone runs an operating system known as iPhone OS
  • The operating system of iPhone run the software which is approved by the signature of Apple
  • It has 16 GB – 32GB flash drive, 3 mega pixel auto focus
  • It has Accelerometer sensors, proximity sensor and Ambient light sensor
  • AT&T EDGE network speed is very low.
  • The 66% of iPhone users says it is best, which is followed by 45% of touch screen interface, easy to use 22 % and size of screen 16%
  • Users like iphone because it come with great application like email GPS MMS etc
  • Using iPhone in business is to speed up the day, like quick call, calendar, web browsing, strong contacts and smart features like GPS maps , weather report etc
  • iPhone helps the users to cook because it has Apps of the cooks
  • iPhone also have great application like Apps for keeping current news, Apps for outdoors, Apps for music, Apps for work, Apps for students, Apps for business, Apps of going out and finding places to eat, Apps for Games and fun
  • Wi-Fi networks rarely have an issues like unable to connect near by Wi-Fi networks, giving every low signals and also sometimes unable to connect the internet


  • It cannot turn off the iPhone and unable to load data from the sync service
  • iPhone cannot be unlocked formally because the lock and unlock authority is maintained by the Apple servers.
  • Using both Multi-touch Interaction and Direct Manipulation Methods
  • In Apple iPhone the both Direct Manipulation and Multi-touch Interaction are used by Multi-finger cursor techniques.
  • Direct touch interaction is appealing because they can play a role of both selection and manipulation.



  • iPhone users are very satisfied
  • iPhone increase mobile browsing


  • It supports SIM that has been activated for that specific mobile phone
  • It Cant upgrade the phone memory
  • iPhone battery cannot be changed and the fact that it is sealed

Limitation & Drawbacks

  • It is very hard to write in iphone because every time when we enter comma or any punctuation it is very difficult Suggestions



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