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Change On Food Production Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 1541 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Agriculture is highly dependent on specific climate conditions. Moderate warming and appropriate carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may help plants to grow faster. But more severe climate change such as global warming, floods, drought, and hail may reduce yields. According the survey, from 1981 to 1990, the average global temperature has increased 0.48 °C than 100 years ago. If greenhouse gas emissions continue the warming will also continue, with temperatures projected to increase by 1.4 °C to 5.8 °C between 1990 and 2100. (Richardson et al. 2011) Increases in temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) can be beneficial for some crops in some places. But to realize these benefits, nutrient levels, soil moisture, water availability, and other conditions must also be met. Higher CO2 levels can increase yields. The yields for some crops, like wheat and soybeans, could increase by 30% or more under a doubling of CO2 concentrations. The yields for other crops, such as corn, exhibit a much smaller response (less than 10% increase). However, some factors may counteract these potential increases in yield.

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For example, if temperature exceeds a crop’s optimal level or if sufficient water and nutrients are not available, yield increases may be reduced or reversed. Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. U.S. exports supply more than 30% of all wheat, corn, and rice on the global market. Changes in temperature, amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather could have significant impacts on crop yields. Warmer temperatures may make many crops grow more quickly, but warmer temperatures could also reduce yields. Crops tend to grow faster in warmer conditions. However, for some crops (such as grains), faster growth reduces the amount of time that seeds have to grow and mature. This can reduce yields (i.e., the amount of crop produced from a given amount of land). (EPA 2012) All the problem need to have fast and effective ways to be solve well. In the text will talk other country use what solution to decrease the damage and to protect the crop.

Global warming has a serious impact on agricultural production, according to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) research report pointed out the vulnerability of agriculture to climate warming performance of consumption in the world’s largest of several major varieties of grain, wheat, cereal, corn and rice are particularly sensitive to high temperature, decreased production will cause food shortages. (CGIAR 2012) World Agro forestry Centre chief ecologist Dr. Lewis • Will Carter report pointed out that the impact of climate change on agriculture in developing countries, for example, China’s agricultural production, the main crops are rice, wheat and corn, warming irrigated and rain-fed spring wheat production decreased by 17.7% and 31.4%, respectively, the average corn production will cut 3% -7%; (Chiras 2012) warming will accelerate microbial decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in the decline of soil fertility, implementation of the pesticide will increase and extend the crop growing season, so that not only increase agricultural costs, and affect the safety of the food. (Cline 2007)

Solution: straw technology is a stimulation of soil fertility, not only put an end to the air pollution caused by straw burning, and fattening yield beneficial to help improve its agricultural production. Warming mainly due to the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) concentration increased CO2 is the main greenhouse gas, straw as a carrier material, energy and nutrients, is a valuable natural resource, straw is the straw is not directly feed directly or accumulation composting facilities into the soil in a way, the use of straw technology can improve soil properties, accelerated adobe aging and improve soil fertility by affecting soil microbial biomass and microbial communities, and changes in soil physical and chemical properties, such as the many ways to increase the intensity of soil respiration, thereby increasing soil carbon dioxide emissions, and can direct compensation the consumption potential fertility of the soil, the biological cycle accelerated soil material to promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the soil improve nutrient supply conditions to promote the increase of soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other content, improve soil moisture holding capacity, boosting crop resistance. On the other hand, the mechanization of straw including straw chopper compiled pressure to field a variety of forms, the whole rod feature is convenient, fast, low-cost and large area of ​​soil fertility advantage; it has been one of the more mature technologies. (Meng et al. 2008)

After 1760s Industrial Revolution, release more carbon dioxide, resulting in melting snow to make more floods and influence food production. For example Yangtze river is the highest frequency of floods in China, one of the infestation of serious natural disasters, (Wanfang Data 2012) so for solving the problem there are two ways, reducing carbon footprint and construct dam in the Crop-growing areas, use the reservoir to control flood. (Luo 2002) So for reducing carbon footprint, first is China government encourage factories to emission gas after Purification of carbon dioxide, second is government investment research new energy. If carbon footprint can reduce success, may not have too many floods and food production will increase. For preventing to reduce food production from floods, China government built Three Gorges Project from 1994 for protect the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River , although Three Gorges Project has Flood control, power generation and shipping, including flood control, are considered the core benefits of the Three Gorges Project. So make sure protect Crop-growing areas. (Baidu 2012)

When the climate change ,it also make the drought Frequent occurrence, a lot of Crop-growing areas food production sudden reduce, people can increase food production for solving the problem , and there is a scientist did very well in this, he created a new kind of rice, Yuan Longping, Studied of hybrid rice technology from 1964, three lines supporting in 1973, bred the first hybrid rice South High Yielding Combinations excellent No. 2 in 1974, developed in 1975, the success of hybrid rice cultivation technology for the large scale hybrid rice laid the foundation. ¼ˆZhuang 2008¼‰ For increasing food production we need to promote the cultivation of Yuan Longping “hybrid rice”. Yuan Longping went to eight countries recent years including the Philippines, the United States, Japan, France, Britain, Italy, Egypt, Australia, has been invited to give lectures, teach techniques, participate in academic conferences or technical cooperation and research international academic activities 19 times. Hybrid rice go to the world, the United States, Japan, the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina and more than 100 countries have introduced hybrid rice and we need do better. (CCTV News 2012¼‰

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Internationally, the effects of climate change on agriculture and food production are likely to be similar to those seen in the United States and China. The effects of climate change also need to be considered along with other evolving factors that affect agricultural production, such as changes in farming practices and technology. As the reader understanding from the text, some solutions and create ways are from experts, but not all of the famers have high education and high skill to save the low food production because of climate change. Many farmers because there wasn’t enough agricultural knowledge lead to reduce the number of crop production. Such as China, Farmers average education by lack of fixed number of year 7 years. In nearly 490 million rural labor force, the primary school culture degree and illiteracy semiliterate accounts for 40.31%, the junior middle school culture degree of 48.01%, high school culture degree of 9.7%, technical secondary school culture degree 2%, above college culture level accounted for only 0.52%. (Dong et al. 2006)

If can not improve the education quality of famers that will effects the agriculture development. These phenomena get the attention of the government. A lot of local agriculture bureau has begun to action, they launch a training course teach farmers better cultivation of food, and also answer famer’s question about plant the crop. The agriculture bureau also distribution of free technology books to farmers about pollution-free vegetables cultivation and the quality and safety of agriculture products. Through the training, improve the farmers’ science and technology quality, training they rely on science and technology to increase food production. The government also hope famers use their new knowledge to create the new varieties can grow up in the different climate, and overcome the severe environment change to make food production problems to minimum. (HNXNC 2012)


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