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Endangered Species Of Flora In India Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 2829 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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In India there is wide range of conditions of climate from the arctic to the torrid and India has varied and rich vegetation, in which only a few countries of the equal size possess. India is divided into 8 different regions of floras namely, the Ganges plain, Assam, the eastern Himalayas, Andaman, the western Himalayas, the Indus plain, the Deccan and the Malabar [Angel, 1993].

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The Himalaya in Western region extends from Kumaon to Kashmir. Its temperature zone is rich in forests of pine, chirr, broad-leaved and other coniferous temperate trees. The forest like the spruce, blue pine, silver fir and deodar trees also occur. The zone of alpine extends from the upper limit of temperature zone of about 3,575 meters or even in great height. The tree characteristic of this zone is a high level junipers, silver fir and silver birch. The region of eastern Himalayas extends from the eastwards of Sikkim and encompasses adjacent tract, Kurseong and Darjeeling. The temperature zone has the forest of birch, rhododendrons, maples, oaks, alder and laurels. Many dwarf willows, junipers and coniferous trees also occur here. In the region of Assam it comprises of the Surma valley and the Brahmaputra River and also has the tall grasses, occasional thick parts of bamboos and the evergreen forests. The region of Indus plain comprise of the northern Gujarat, western Rajasthan and the plains of Punjab. It also supports hot and dry natural vegetation [David, 1995]. The region of Ganges plain cover the area which is the alluvial plain and it is under the cultivation of rice, sugarcane and wheat. Only the small areas support the forest of various types. The region of Deccan comprises the whole tableland of the Peninsula of India and supports the vegetation of different kinds of jungles of scrub to mixed forests of deciduous. The region of Malabar covers the high humid belt of the country of mountains parallel to the Peninsula’s west coast. Besides the rich vegetation of forest, this region also produce necessary commercial crops, such as cashew nut, pepper, betel nut, coconut, rubber and coffee and tea. The region of Andaman abounds in the beach and diluvia, mangrove and evergreen forests. The regions of Himalayas extend from Arunachal Pradesh to Kashmir through the Deccan Peninsula, Bhutan, Meghalaya and Nagaland, Nepal and Sikkim is rich in the flora, with many numbers of plants which are not found anywhere [Everard B, 1978].

India has a wide variety of flora. In India the data place available is in the 10th position in the world and 4th place in Asia in the diversity of plants. About 80 per cent of the geographic areas surveyed so far have 48,000 plant species that have been described by the Botanical Survey of India in Kolkata. The wide flora forms the conspicuous cover of vegetation that comprises of 20,000 plant species. Of that, more than 45 per cent is endemic and it has so far not been reported anywhere in the world. The flora of the country is studied by the Botanical Survey of India and its 9 field/circle offices located throughout the country along with certain research institutions and universities.

The study of botany deals with the utilization of the products of plants by the races of ethnic. The scientific study of plants is made by Botanical Survey of India. A number of brief explorations of botany seminar are conducted in various areas of tribal country. More than 900 species of plant of the interest of seminar of botanical plants is identified and collected in various centers [Edward S, 1998].

Because of the destruction of forest for the urban, industrial and agricultural development, several plants of India is facing the extinction. About 2,457 species of plant are considered endangered and vulnerable. About 30 species of high plants are classified as possible distance as they are not sighted during the last 7-12 decades. The Botanical Survey of India brings out the inventory of the endangered plants in the form of a publication book and the title of the book is Red Data Book.

Aims and objectives of the study

Primary Objective:

To identify the list of plants that are highlighted to be endangered in India

To analyze the relationship between the plants and the ecosystem of an environment

To understand the impact of endangered plants in the ecology of the country.

To evaluate the measures taken by national botanical gardens to protect the endangered species of flora

To suggest preventive measures to protect endangered flora in India

To enable the survival of endangered flora in India, by protecting them from destructive forces.

Secondary Objective:  

To create awareness about endangered flora among the Indian people.

To emphasis the need for protecting the endangered flora in India

To make the society understand the relationship between endangered flora and ecosystem.

Review of literature

In India the concept of conservation of forest and wildlife is very ancient. Since the wildlife and immemorial has enjoyed a big position of protecting through religious philosophy. In India the flora is very diverse than its cultural differences. The subcontinent of India has many fascinating sights for its nature of lovers. Around 20% of the country still has the cover of forest and only 5% is protected within the national reserves and parks. In the past few decades the government has taken serious steps towards the management of environment and has established various reserves, botanical gardens and parks [Peter, 1995].

In India the topography and the climate is reflected its richness in flora. India is world popular for its rhinoceroses, elephants and tigers, but these are just 3 of more than 600 mammal species harboring in the country. India has captured the attentions of wildlife lovers and experts. In India the wildlife assortment is truly mind-boggling; nobody can find such a beautiful numbers and variety it boasts of [Barnwell D, 1979].

It is exceptional and exciting to be in India. And it is far more entertaining and exciting in the wildlife biosphere of India mainly confined in the national park or wildlife botanical garden of India. In India the wildlife heritage is very much diverse than the cultural heritage of other countries. India has 451 botanical gardens, 90 national parks, of which 20 falls under the Project Tiger. In India the total area of protected wildlife is approximately 150,000 square kilometer. This contains 5 % of the total land area of country. Not only the vast patch of forests preserved as the natural habitats for wildlife, but they are even more unique owing to the fact that they vary from region to region and has something different in its flora. Many of the species are harbored in these areas are endangered and rare. India is blessed with over 3,000 bird species, over 600 reptile and amphibian species and around 40,000 plant species. Many projects of conservation are established to prevent them.

Indian Floras:

The vast range of conditions of climate helps the boasts of India of its rich variety of vegetation that no other country in this world can boast. The vegetation comprise of 18,000 plant species. According to the distribution of flora, India can be classified into, Andaman, Deccan plain, Indus plain, Eastern Himalayas, Western Himalayas, Malabar, Assam and Ganges Plain [Heywood V, 1987].

Indian flora moves hither and thither from the Assamese and Western Himalayas, from the species of the Indus Plain to those of the Ganges plain, from the Malabar and Deccan for the vegetation of the Andaman’s. The treasure of flora ranges from the Alpine to the thorn temperate, from the evergreen to coniferous, from deciduous to scrub forests and from cool temperate woods to thick tropical jungles.

The biosphere of the Western Himalayas is springy with the coniferous and other chirr pine, spruce, junipers, blue pine, silver fir and coniferous deodar. The region of Eastern Himalayas consists of dwarf willows, rhododendrons, laurels, maples, oaks, birch and alder. The region of Assam is full of evergreen forest with many tall grasses and bamboos [Stephen L, 1996].

The Ganges Plain is under cultivation and the Indus plain supports very insufficient vegetation. The region of Deccan is full of mixed deciduous and scrub forests. The region of Malabar is under the commercial crops like pepper, coconut, betel nut and coffee and tea. The region of Andaman is great in the mangrove and evergreen forests.

Endangered plants constitute a renewable resource of organic which is being produced from the basis of manmade and biotic existence environment. They provide us drinks, medicine, timber, sugar, food, fibers, rubber, gums, condiments, pulp for paper, etc. Endangered plants maintains the balance of oxygen/carbon dioxide and provides shelter for numerous plants and moderates the climate, increases the period of rainfall and even prevent the erosion of soil. Due to over exploitation, the resources of plant are decreased causing denudation, floods and desertification [Quentin C B, 1995].

List of Endangered Plants:

In India there are various endangered plants available. Some of the list of endangered plants below includes many species of plant as possible. The Botanical names of some species of plants are given below:

Steps Taken by the Human beings to prevent the Environment:

Human beings are changing 65% of the surface of earth and had changed considerably 30% of the total land through the following steps:

Clears the grasslands and forests which destroy large number of species of plant.

High use of fertilizers and irrigation change the fertile land into barren waste land.

Many types of plants are brought under cultivation. The ancestor of some of the plants is lost. The ancestors of plants have become deficient and it cannot survive in nature without the help of human are named as cultigens.

Human beings introduce the plants in new areas. Such transfer has brought serious pests and weeds into new areas. The latest weed to enter India is Carrot Grass.

It is the duty of every human being to put a step forward to change the environment in a good manner. Reforestation, afforestation, social forestry, cultivation of many species of plant, protection and prevention from fires of forest, controlled grazing are some of the methods to conserve endangered plants [William S, 1999].

On a large scale, the government has put forward various acts of forest for the protection of plants. The botanical gardens, biosphere reserves and seed banks have been setup for the protection of endangered species.

Steps taken by Government to Preserve Endangered Plants:

Government has taken many steps. The rules are made strict and they also create awareness program for the people to conserve the endangered plants. The first step towards conserving the endangered plants is to learn as much as possible about the plants [Davis S D, 1996].

The spread of non-native species has impacted greatly in the native populations around the world. The invasive species compete with the native species for the habitat and resources. They can even prey for the native species directly by forcing the native species towards exceeding. Another way to reduce the threat of invasive species is to incorporate the native plants in the garden and welcome the native animals into the yard.

The pesticides and Herbicides may keep the yards looking good but they are dangerous pollutants that affect the endangered species in many levels. Many pesticides and herbicides take a long time to build and degrade up in the soils throughout the food chain. Some groups of plants such as evergreen plants are vulnerable to the chemical pollutants and they suffer a lot and as a result of the high levels of pesticides and herbicides in their habitat [Davis, 1986].

Research methodology

The systematic gathering recording and analyzing of the data about the problems, which formulate the hypothesis and suggested organizing, collecting and evaluating data, reaching conclusion and making corrections by testing carefully the conclusions to determine whether they fit to formulate the hypothesis.

Two forms of research are undertaken in order for the purpose of satisfying the objectives of the study:

Primary Research: Data collected through first-hand sources

Secondary Research: Second-hand data collected through different sources

Primary research- Quantitative Research

Quantitative research method will be followed in order to create a detailed analysis of consumers’ perception regarding emails and direct mails as marketing medium in India. Quantitative research offers several advantages to the study: Brower et al (2000, pg. 366) assert that “quantitative researchers pursue- and insist that they generate- value-free, unbiased data”. Similarly, McLaughlin et al (2002) highlight the following uses of quantitative approach:

– Research and establish explicit hypotheses

– Uses accurate measures of concepts

– Uses tests of statistical significance

– Uses controls for other explanatory variables

– Provides a clear theoretical context

Secondary Research

Secondary data is the information what was collected in the past for some other purpose. Usually, researchers start their investigation by studying a rich variety of already accessible data, to see if they can make a breakthrough in the study partly or wholly, without the use of expensive, time-consuming first-hand research. The following forms of secondary data will be used to research purpose:


Journals and articles



Online web portals

Annual Reports

Government Agencies

Independent Agencies

Government official reports

Research Design

This study will be descriptive in nature.

Sampling design

Target population:

The target population in this research refers to the national botanical gardens that have been prevailing for more than two decades in India. The respondents are the head horticulturists of the botanical gardens.

Sample size

This study takes into consideration ten different persons designated as the head of botanical gardens of India.

Sampling unit

The sampling units are the following botanical gardens and their head horticulturists.

Agri Horticultural Society of India

Lalbagh Botanical garden

Government Botanical garden

Indian Botanical garden

Saharanpur Botanical garden

Jhansi Botanical garden

Tropical Botanical garden

Garden of Medicinal Plants

Sarangpur Botanical garden

Lloyd’s Botanical garden

Sampling method

The sampling technique is taken for the study is “Convenience Sampling”. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher [Joan Joseph Castillo, 2009].

In convenience sampling, the subjects are easy to select for the study since they are available ready. This technique is highly preferred by many because it is fast, easy and inexpensive.

Size of Sample Survey

A sample size of 10 respondents (one for each botanical garden) will be considered for this study.

Sampling plan:

The data will be collected by mailing them the questionnaires to their workplace.

Questionnaire Design:

The questionnaire will consist of both open-ended and close-ended questions.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

The data collected from primary research will be analyzed and interpreted using statistical tools. It is suitable to the study over other tools, because:

It provides both subjective as well as objective results, of which subjective can be converted into numbers/scores

It can be used to identify and understand the hidden attributes or constructs which would otherwise (in case of direct analysis) have been unapparent

It is inexpensive and easier to implement than other tools.

Limitations of the study

This concentrates on the impact created only by endangered plants on the ecology and does not consider any other species.

This study focuses exclusively on endangered plants in India.

This study analyzes only the environmental impact created by plants mammals and does not involve any other impact.

This study is applicable for botanical gardens existing in India.


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