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Humans Impact On Biomes Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 1810 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Human beings have continuously continued with interference of different biomes and thus bringing various modifications to these biomes. If efforts are not enhanced in conserving the natural world, we shall continue experiencing deteriorating weather factors like the global warming. Failure to conserve our biosphere will ultimately hurt the human race. This annotated bibliography gives insight on the resources that provide useful information on impact of human beings on different biomes

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The authors provide a discussion on the loss and degradation of natural habitats that has continued unabated. It recommends on the assessment of the progress that has been achieved for the last ten years since the World Summit on Environment was last held. Various systems are discussed which are important with economic benefits as per the available data on habitat conservation. The reader will have insight on events discussed during the World summit and issues that were recommended. The events are discussed in a systematic manner providing the reader with easier reading. This article is recommendable to any researcher or student in this field.

Carpenter, Stephen. Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Volume 2. Washington D.C., DC: Island

Press, 2005

In this book, the author implores various scenarios which provide an important tool for the analysis of complex systems. In addition, they give a good understanding of different outcomes which have a chance of occurring. There is a growing demand for ecosystem services and thus this book provides four approaches which are highly sought. The first is Global Orchestration approach which focuses on equity, the growth of the economy and the issue preventing ecosystem problems. The second is the order from strength which lays an emphasis on security and economic growth. The third is mosaic which focuses on management of ecosystems. Finally, is the technogarden which is concerned with green technology as a form of managing ecosystems? This book is important in giving insights to the learner on different biomes and various management approaches

Chapin, Francis. Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-based Natural Resource

Management in a Changing World. Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2009.

The author implores the implementation of a steady-state theory and policies. This tends to invest in controlling a few selected ecosystem processes, at the expense of long-term social-ecological resilience. Loss of resilience makes systems more vulnerable to both expected and unforeseen changes. Achieving desirable outcomes for humanity, such as those of the UN Millennium Development Goals on poverty, food security, and environmental sustainability, will require new integrated and adaptive approaches to social and economic development. This is where the complex interconnectedness between humans and nature, at all scales, is considered and the existence of uncertainty and surprise accepted as the rule. The author provides a new framework for resource management that is based on the necessity of managing resources in a world dominated by uncertainty and change. This book is essential to readers as it links recent advances in the theory of resilience, sustainability, and vulnerability with practical issues of resource management.

Chapin, Stuart, et al. “Consequences of Changing Biodiversity.” Nature 405.2 (2000): 234-242.

The authors outline various activities which causes alterations of the global environment. This has caused major extinctions to be exhibited in the history of man. As a result, there has been a marked change in the distribution and occurrence on various organisms. Ecological habitats have changed as organisms try to adapt to the changing ecosystems. The processes that take place in the ecosystem are altered and the resilience to the environmental changes is affected. As a result, various consequences are faced which are often not good. The huge ecological and societal consequences of altered biodiversity ought to be reduced. This will help in preserving available options for future answers to global environmental problems. The authors use simple language which can be easily understood by readers. It is relevant in providing answers to various global environmental problems.

Cowling, Ricky, Richardson, David and Pierce, S. Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 2004

The authors provide comprehensive details about different vegetation types that occupy various parts of southern Africa. Despite the region having a cohesive ecological unit, it has different ecosystems which brings a notable diversity. The author presents this book in three parts which are; part one covers historical perspectives providing an understanding to the different ecosystems, part two provides the reader with the different characteristics and the determining factors for the vegetations, part three gives an insight into particular ecological themes like fire, grazing among others. This book provides its reader with profound knowledge on vegetation and effects of various factors.

Dickinson, Gordon, Murphy, Kevin J., and Murphy, Kevin. Ecosystems. New York, NY:

Routledge, 2007

The authors give a thought provoking introduction about the ecosystems nature. In addition, various ecosystem types are discussed and their interactions with the actions of human beings are given. In this second edition, an update of recent research on this field of ecology is provided giving major discoveries and their addition to this wide field. The authors are able to incorporate a strong theme about the application of functional ecology in providing an understanding of the working nature of ecosystems. Moreover, this book provides the reader with more insight on how to apply the concepts of the ecosystems in the subject of science and applied science. The book contains various chapters like global environmental change and impacts on the ecosystem which serves in the understanding of the biomes in the earth’s atmosphere. The language used in this book is simple for the reader and the information given is relevant in the study of impacts of human beings on the biomes.

Ellis, Erle and Ramankutty, Navin. “Putting People in a Map: Anthropogenic Biomes of the

World” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6. 2 (2008): 439-447.

The authors discuss how humans have essentially altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. The existing systems for representing these global patterns, including biome classifications, either ignore humans altogether or simplify human influence into, at most, four categories. The authors present the first characterization of terrestrial biomes based on global patterns of sustained, direct human interaction with ecosystems. The authors identify, eighteen “anthropogenic biomes” through empirical analysis of global population, land use, and land cover. More than 75% of Earth’s ice-free land showed evidence of alteration as a result of human residence and land use, with less than a quarter remaining as wild lands. This supports just 11% of terrestrial net primary production. Anthropogenic biomes offer a new way forward by acknowledging human influence on global ecosystems and moving us toward models and investigations of the terrestrial biosphere that integrate human and ecological systems. The authors present a comprehensive analysis presenting the reader with easier understanding.

Goudie, Andrew. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment: Past, Present and Future.

Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

The author provides a wide coverage of environmental issues that are being exhibited in the current modern world. The book is a good resource to ecology students as it begins by covering past events on human impacts on earth, presents the current issues and finally gives a projection of the future. It tackles impacts man has on the vegetation, water, landforms, and animals among others. In addition, it provides current statistics about human impacts on the environment. The text is presented in a new design which makes it more presentable and easy to be used by the readers. This book is relevant to the topic of the study by giving important information on the past, present and future impacts of humans on the biome.

Nilsson, Christer, Reidy, Catherine, Dynesius, Mats and Revenga, Carmen. Fragmentation and

Flow Regulation of the World’s Large River Systems. Science 308. 5720 (2005): 405-408.

The authors provide a global overview of dam-based impacts on large river systems which show that over half (172 out of 292) are affected by dams, including the eight most biogeographically diverse. Dam-impacted catchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25 times more economic activity per unit of water than do unaffected catchments. In view of projected changes in climate and water resource use, these findings can be used to identify ecological risks associated with further impacts on large river systems. This article is recommended to students learning about different biomes and the impacts of man on them. The discussion is presented in an easily understandable language which students will find useful in their research and readings.

Woodruff, David. “Declines of Biomes and Biotas and the Future of Evolution” PNAS 98. 10

(2007): 5471-5476.

The article outlines details of a panel discussing the topic of study. To respond to the declines of biomes and homogenization of biotas, the panelists predicted changes in species geographic ranges, genetic risks of extinction, genetic assimilation, and natural selection and mutation rates. In addition, the shortening of food chains, the increase in nutrient-enriched niches permitting the ascendancy of microbes, and the differential survival of ecological generalists are also discussed. Action taken over the next few decades will determine how impoverished the biosphere will be in 1,000 years when many species will suffer reduced evolvability and require interventionist genetic and ecological management. Whether the biota will continue to provide the dependable ecological services humans take for granted is less clear. The discussants offered recommendations, including two of paramount importance (concerning human populations and education), seven identifying specific scientific activities to better equip us for stewardship of the processes of evolution, and one suggesting that such stewardship is now our responsibility. The article is relevant in providing the reader with insights in to the topic on human impacts on biomes.


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