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Pollution Levels In The River Nile

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 1605 words Published: 27th Apr 2017

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River Nile is the most important rivers. It passes through many countries. It has historical, economic, agricultural important for these countries. In the last period, the River Nile pollution exposure to many pollutants. I will talk in this report about the importance of the River Nile and River, Nile pollution and damage to these pollutants. Finally I will mention the solutions.

Nile River:

The Nile is a major river in Africa .It the longest river in the world. The total length of the river is 6650 km (4132 miles). Nile Basin covers an area of 3.4 million km ². Nile Basin countries are Uganda, Ethiopia , Sudan and DRC. Also Burundi , Tanzania , Rwanda , Kenya, Egypt and Eritrea. The Nile has two major tributaries, White and Blue Nile. The river flows through desert almost, from Sudan into Egypt. Egypt civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along Nile river .Most the historical and cultural sites of Egypt are found along the Nile river. The Nile ends in a large delta and it is go into the Mediterranean Sea.

Important of Nile River:

Nile Basin constitutes has unique diversified geographically, starting from the highlands in the south and at least freshly hit even up to the spacious plains in the far north. Therefore, the Nile River is the only river which flows from south to north due to the tendency of the earth.

Nile is of great importance in the economies of the Nile Basin, in the field of agriculture : in all countries of the Nile Basin water farmers depends on nile water as resources to irrigate their crops. Among the most famous of these crops: cotton, wheat, sugarcane, dates, legumes, and citrus fruits.

In fishing, many type of fish abundance in Nile water. fish are favorite dishes of many of the peoples in these countries. the Nile River has many aquaculture animals such as Nile crocodile, which presence in most of the path of the Nile.

In the field of tourism in Egypt and Sudan are based upon a type of tourism, ” Nile Tourism “, in both Egypt and Sudan, many ship carrying tourists and visitors to the country each of Qena, Luxor and Aswan, Egypt, and between two mountains, the third and fourth in the north of Sudan, between the Juba and Kochi.

Causes of Nile pollution

The River Nile is exposed to many types of pollutants from the waste characteristics and makes it invalid to use for drinking and irrigation, which is detrimental to humans and animals. Nile river pollution mean there is a change in physical properties, chemical properties or biological properties of water.

*Biological waste:

Biological waste mean is the present of organisms with visible or invisible eye that cause pollution in water such as: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, animal and there are phases of minutes (eggs, larvae stages).

Some of these organisms are seen bye naked eye, such as some algae and aquatic plants, and others organism can not be seen by naked eye (only with a microscope), such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The degree of proliferation of these organisms depends on the nature and size of these organisms.

*Organic pollution

Organic pollution is a waste of plant and animal which contain chemically into seven groups of substances, namely:

1. Soluble substances in the water, including Algelokoseidat, sugars , amino acids , salts, nitrates, sulfates, chlorides and potassium salts.

2 soluble substances in the ether, including alcohol, include fats, oils and waxes.

3. Alselliozat.

4 .Alheimciliozat.

5. Alganinat.

6. proteins.

7. Minerals that do not dissolve in water including potassium magnesium.

*Toxic metals pollution

The number of chemical elements are manufactured that more than (1500) type. Many heavy metals are found in industrial .They have bad effects to humans and organisms .For example:


It is come from waste generated through electrolysis in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas. It was found that the microbiologist turned inorganic mercury into methylmercury, which binds with the protein strain found in the body by a group (-SH), which exist, and this leads to focus on the food chain.

Cadmium Cd

It is one of the most dangerous pollutants of comparison .It inhibits the activity of enzymes containing a group replace zinc in some enzymes containing it.

Lead pb

It is an inhibitor of the functions of many enzymes

Symptoms of lead poisoning:

Colic, and anemia, headaches, convulsions, and renal colic.

Arsenic: As

It is enter in many industries, such as: the pesticide industry. Like the rest of the other heavy metals and their compounds, it has a detrimental effect and toxic on living organisms, when concentrations of it up to a certain extent. We see the harmful effect of heavy metals in drainage water, which led to the pollution of crops.

*Residues, animal waste and garbage:

It is people’s ignorance of the fact of the Nile River and that the source of water .They got rid of the bodies of dead farm animals , disposal of waste and garbage “dead birds and infected by bird flu ,”and throw them in the river.

Long time ago, the Nile flood “before the establishment of the High Dam,” the constant motion of water and volatile help to out expulsion of contaminants.

Effect of Nile Pollution:

*Biological waste:

Waste waters are carrying many of the microbes especially bacteria. These microbes cause water pollution. The contamination of the water leads to pollute fish, molluscs, crustaceans and others aquatic animals. The contaminated water may lead to poisoning or killing human.

The most important disease-causing bacteria:

The contaminated water may lead to poisoning or killing of human beings is the most important disease-causing bacteria:


It is a type of bacteria causes typhoid .

The most important parasites that pollute the water are Ascaris worms and schistosomes .

One of the main viruses that found in water pollution is hepatitis virus, which leads to infection of larvae (yellow).

*Organic pollution:

$ Lead to a lack of Oxgen. That are effecting to organism that live in water.

$ Increasing number of microbes significantly in the Availability of organic materials and that is lead to serious damage.

$ Anaerobic conditions lead to the formation of toxic compounds affect the growth of Plants.

$ Spread of weeds , nematodes, fungal bacterial diseases.

*Toxic metals pollution


Toxicity of inorganic compounds of mercury lead to “Nervous Disorder” . Injury element mercury leads headache, chills and inflammation of the bladder, memory loss.

Organic mercury compounds, especially methylmercury, it is more toxic because of the easy to go in porous membranes. It is concentrated in the blood and affects the mind and central system, the witness here, Minamata’s disaster in Japan in 1952, which died in which more than (52) people. The reason for that was the people of this village ate fish in their food, which contained concentrations of mercury compound (CH3.HgS.CH3).

Cadmium Cd, Lead pb

They inhibit the activity of enzymes in the body of living organisms.

Arsenic: As

It has a detrimental effect and toxic on living organisms.

*Residues, animal waste and garbage:

The spread of diseases between humans and animals who depend on drinking water of the Nile.


إظهØر Øلتحويل إلى Øلحروف ØللØتينية

1 . Work necessary precautions to prevent the leakage of sewage to the waters of the Nile.

2. Emphasis on not throw factory waste in the river, whether liquid or solid in the river.

3. Prohibition and criminalization of dead animals in the River Nile.

4. Do not throw waste solids and plastic in the River Nile.

5. Spread health awareness among the farmer.

6 Spreading awareness among farmers to not wash tools and equipment for spraying pesticides in the waters of River Nile water (irrigation).

7. Take all measures towards the implementation of law to protect of waterways, especially rivers.

8. Built centers measurements fixed the waterways, to control pollution that occurs on them.

9. The need to do special place for the sewage and assembled away from the Nile.

10. Control the pollution which leads to acid rain, which polluted the Nile.

11. Prevent use of water (the Nile and other) to clean the animals and laundered.

12. Don’t do wrong practices such as some people on the banks of the Nile, such as washing dishes and clothes.


Water is very important element we need to live and it is part of our lives. Nile River is impotent source for water. Many reasons cause water pollution. These will destroy the water we drink and will destroy our lives. To prevent Nile water pollution the government should provide strict penalties for people or factories who try to pollute the water.







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