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Research Proposal On Resource Management Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 5426 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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This is an individual components assignment with carried an individual presentation. This assignment is consists of a research proposals. A research proposal is written specification of an intended research. In order to, from the particular topic do the literature review, problem statement, methodology, project objective and results expectation. When do research on literature review as a researcher needed to find information through the scholarly journal, scholarly articles, books and scholarly conference.

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In the literature review, task is to make referencing as research proposals what others researcher has been done. Find the relevant particular issue, area of research, theory, description, summary and critical issue due to the particular topic. In research proposals, the next method is problem statement. At here, after accomplished the literature review part, to identifying the problem on others researcher has been done. Furthermore, also discuss the problem of project background, project background is provide the evidence ad facts to support the researcher case problem, describes clearly on the new idea problem.

After completed the problem statement, the next step is methodology. Methodology is from researcher research design to identifying the justification or limitations on the product. At here, requirement explains the depth of investigation, content, sample size, geographical and theoretical coverage. The next method for research proposal is Project objective, project objective is listed out the objective of the research aim arising directly from the purpose of the study. In the project objective, also require to do the research questions and significance of the project. For explain objective for the research.

The last step is results expectation. Before completed the research proposal, as a researcher require to do the results expectation on the idea. To do the analyze data, listed the method to used, require market or other relevant issues for assuming the results. In conclusion, a research proposal is combined with different research methods for accomplished the proposal. , all of this method is important information to support researcher on the research topic for avoid the plagiarisms.

Due to the problem of global climate rapidly increasing, environmental damage and environmental pollution become more serious. And the natural resources minimizing, the important of renewable energy more be valued. More researcher are try to research the renewable energy for solving the natural resources minimizing problem. Researcher are founded various types of renewable energy for replacement the natural resources, the most common renewable energy is solar energy system. Solar energy system is collecting the sunlight into the solar panel and then to generate the electric power to supply the electricity. Next of renewable energy is the wave energy system, its assist with the wave energy to rotary the turbine generator and generate the electric power, normally are using by the country along with ocean. The next renewable energy is same concept with the wave energy system, there are also using the turbine rotary to generate the energy for supply the electric power, which is the wind energy power system.

Turbine are designing as the fan blade, it’s normally build on open air environment. When the wind are blowing the turbine will be rotating and in the same time the turbine connect with a generator, the generator are generate the energy, therefore this is called as wind power energy system. Basically wind power energy system are building at high frequency wind area, because able to generate more energy, but due to the researcher do some relevant research it also suitable for build at normal frequency wind blow areas. Reason is renewable energy is an important resources for reducing the natural resource minimizing rapidly.

In the end, introduce my research topic is the micro wind turbine generator renewable energy system on street light. Due to the street lamp already use the solar power system for replacing the natural power resources, but depending on some area are lack of sunlight, in order to solar street lamp are not suitable for build at the particular place. Designing a wind power system for street light is for backup the solar problem. It could be build in two renewable functions, which is the solar power system and wind power system, but my research topic is more concentrate on the wind power energy system.

Literature Review:

In literature review are require to explanation the overview of the research subject, separate the division of works under review into the categories. Make explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others. And at the end, conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in the argument, which are most convincing of the opinions and make the greatest contribution to understanding and development of the area of research.

The process of assessing each piece, are consideration the four important sessions, which is provenance, objectivity, persuasiveness and value. Furthermore, also needed to identify the definition and the purpose due to the literature review may constitute an essential chapter of a thesis or dissertation, or also maybe a self contained review of writings on a subject.

The requirement of research proposal is to references at least 10 of scholarly journals, scholarly articles, books or conference. From the relevant references, to identifying the fact data or others supporting evidence. And make the referencing citation for avoid to plagiarism.

At first, the literature review is about the storage of fluctuating wind energy. An overview of the literature review is about the last 15 years the wind power energy becomes more and more important in Germany. The amount of total installed capacity of wind power generator was rapidly increasing in Germany, according the data collection from researchers, “the average full load hours of the German wind generation is about 1600h/a and will increase 2010 to about 1960h/a based on the increasing off-shore wind parks in Germany”(Dr Edwin,2007). From this data we get the knowledge about the wind power energy is getting more and more requirement in the global. The result is the increasing the amount requirement wind power energy, the reducing the environmental polluted. According the research paper, the Germany Energy Agency has been published the results, they target to reduce the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission from today 860 Mio t/a until 2012 to 846 Mio t/a.

This development of installment is not only happened in Germany others Europe country also development this generator is extremely fast. Worldwide country also has growing fast for installment the wind power generators. They are still continuing investigate the research on Compressed air energy storage (CASE). Compressed air energy storage is operated system in different ways, which is the storage of low energy for peak load demand, use of not used base load energy, reserve the energy power and storage of fluctuating wind energy. In conclusion, they still investigate the problem of transmission system for transportation the power to long distance, and the change reserve and operation system.

Next, the literature review is plan for the wind power device to make the best of earth wind energy. After overview the paper, for collecting the best of wind energy resources on the earth surface, researcher are plan for a new type of wind power device, it called as multiple wind wheel wind power device (MWD). The multiple wind wheel wind power device is composes steel tower, trusses, generator, long axis, wind turbine and wheel boxes. It’s installed all this components to be the MWD. Multiple wind wheel wind power device operation function is “capture the wind energy in high air, a wind turbine and its generator are installed at the top of a very high tower, that the wind energy below the wind turbine cannot be utilized” (zhang and zhang, 2010). In conclusion, in the limitation area this multiple wind wheel wind power device is more valuable due to the same of capacity and more power to generate.

Another literature review source is about the generating capacity adequacy associated with wind energy. After overview, “utilization of renewable energy, such as the wind power energy is for electric power generation is being given serious consideration around the world due to the global environmental concern associated with conventional energy sources” (Roy Billinton and Guang bai, 2004). Researcher has presented a methodology for capacity adequacy associated with wind energy, comparing the two types of systems which are containing both conventional generation system and wind energy conversion system (WECS). From the simulation, the studies have shown that the wind energy conversion system is more reliability performance generation system. Due to the benefits of the capacity can be assigned to a wind energy conversion system is highly dependent on the wind. In conclusion the paper is making the studies on the wind energy conversion system; focus on the ability to quantify. And able to given reliability contribution in at a site with a high mean wind speed.

Furthermore, literature review source is about the combining the wind power generation system with energy storage equipments. Overview the paper, this paper is about a group of Taiwan researcher to make some studies on the wind power energy. “A wind power is a source of renewable power which comes from air current flowing across the earth’s surface” (Lu. et al. 2008). According the research data, the average annual growth rate of more than 26% since 1990, the wind power energy is the fastest rapid growth energy source in the world. The wind power energy storage equipment also role as important, it approach to make wind power more reliable sources on capacity and energy. This storage devices also as application for reducing the output variation during the gust wind is also studied. In conclusion, the wind power and energy storage equipment is operation the system generation. The benefits of energy storage devices to mitigate the fluctuations during wind gust are also been discussed.

The next literature review is reliability evaluation of generating systems containing wind power and energy storage. This is another group researcher to make studies on energy storage and wind power generating system. “Wind power generation in electric power systems will increase considerably thought out the world in the near future, many countries have implemented or are in the process of implementing policies to promote renewable energy”(Hu. et al., 2009). For wind power energy, is a faster growing source in many types of renewable source. To maintain the system more stability, the wind energy dispatch is usually restricted and energy storage is considered to smooth out the fluctuation and improve supply continuity. Researchers also investigate the wind energy conversion system (WECS) and energy storage, technique of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) also for the reliability evaluation of generating system. In order to, researcher also make studies on the wind power to a small test system which is called as Roy Billiton test system (RBTS). The results also recorded from the wind penetration level, energy storage capacity and energy storage operating constraints. In conclusion, this research paper is making the comparison of three different operating strategies for benefits and advantages on energy storage.

The following of Literature review is an introduction of wind conversion. In this “Although the wind is not very reliable as a source of power from day to day, it is a reliable source of energy year by year , and the main role for future wind energy system will be operating in parallel with electricity grid system”(Musgrove.P.J,1983). The paper has make studies on the wind turbine characteristics, the wind energy resource and economics. Due to the wind turbine system from begin is founded from middle east country, through some moment the wind turbine system is widespread to worldwide, at first , the Mediterranean was adapt the wind turbine system , after the period of time, its spread to Europe and worldwide country. And nowadays, the wind turbine system is very important of renewable energy for this century. In conclusion, wind turbine system is rapidly be installment at worldwide, the requirement of the design and operating function also needed to make improvement. The average wind speed, and hence the wind power density is also subject to consideration geographic variation.

The 7th of literature review is design of wind turbine energy system. This research paper is studies about the designing the actually shape for the suitable area. “Air flowing is called the wind, because of sun, the wind always exists, the wind energy is from the sun, it is a renewable energy resource” (Fang, 2010). In this paper, the researchers is investigate the air flowing in the whole earth is like a boiler. The air becomes light in the equator, and be heavy in the two poles. The air wind flows day and night. Researcher due to the data collection, the different of temperature, the different season, and different or areas the speed of wind is different. Therefore, when design a wind turbine energy system, must be consideration the mass air flows, materials of turbine all is important issues. In conclusion, the paper is case studies of design of wind turbine energy system for suitable to convert to energy source.

The next literature review also as no 8 literature review is wind energy and power system inertia. This research paper is case studies about the wind energy along with the power system. “Wind is an abundant, clean, robust, and compelling resource for generating electricity. The low inertia of a wind dominant power system could be troublesome in power system operation.” (Abreu and shahidehpour, 2006). In this paper presented the problem operation system which is the inertia is to combine wind energy with high inertia energy storage system, improvement technology system in the flywheel energy storage (FES). Flywheel energy storage by using kinetics energy as storage, the FES technology might offers high steady inertia and good efficiency which improve the power quality. Due to no individual power plant is totally reliable and a wind farm alone may not be at the desirable reliability levels, a wind farm might no schedule to supply a certain amount of load. In conclusion, this research topic has been discussing issues on environment, modular benefits and importance. If without the financial issue, they flywheel energy storage system is a good combination for wind turbine generator.

The 9th literature review is the A novel wind energy system. This research paper is case studies also about the wind energy system. “Power generation utilizing wind energy has received greater attention in countries all over the world due to rapid depletion of fossil energy resources” (Chan and Lai, 2009). In this research paper, have done the case studies on few wind energy system, for example an axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generator (AFPMSG) is directly coupled to a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generator is studied using a two dimensional finite element method and analytical methods. Vertical axis wind turbine for use in urban regions are close to domestic premises, hence quiet operation is an important system. In conclusion, the paper is discussing the wind energy system suitable for the urban environment. The axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generators have it benefits and advantages.

Next of the literature review is the supervisory predictive control of standalone wind/solar energy generation systems. This research paper is making the case studies on the development of a supervisory model predictive control methods for the optimal management and operation of hybrid standalone wind-solar energy generation systems. “drivers for solar or wind renewable energy systems are the environmental benefits due to reduction the carbon emissions, reduced investment risk, fuel diversification, and energy autonomy”(Qi.et al,2011). According the renewable energy, the solar energy also is an important research for renewable energy. Some energy generate system is work the two renewable energy together as power energy. Solar system is absorb the sunlight to heat the solar panel, and then to generate the energy. Therefore, the design benefits for some country, because it’s able to generating the energy in two ways. In conclusion, this paper has studies the development if a supervisory predictive control method for the optima management and operation of hybrid wind solar energy generation systems.

The last of literature review is the grid voltage support by mean of a small wind turbine system. This research paper is making the case studies on the small wind turbine system (WTS) improved with voltage compensation functionality. At here, the important part is the voltage controlled inverter. “As the wind capacity increases, grid utility operators have to ensure that consumer power quality is not compromised. To enable a large scale application of the wind energy without compromising the power system stability, the turbine should stay connected and contribute to the grid in case of a disturbance such as voltage dip”(Orlando. et al,2008). The wind turbine system used a permanent magnet generator as the main system for operation. The permanent magnet generator is control to maximize the power output and achieve a smooth torque and power profile. In the conclusion, the paper has studies the new wind turbine system should contribute to the regulation of active and reactive power and thereby contribute to the voltage control.

Problem Statement and Proposed contents:

Problem statement:

According the literature review has been done in previous research data collection. Researcher base on the literature review research to identifying the problem statement. The problem statement is the wind power storage energy system. Need to find out the solution to ensure the electricity collect from turbine generator has been storage in the system. The next problem statement is total amount of wind energy collected by the wind turbine system. Therefore researcher must to find the solving method to complete the problem of wind energy collected. Transmission system of the wind turbine also needs to identify, for guarantee the process to transmit the electric power to generate the light with a stable.

Problem background:

Project background is from the research topic to build up the case. From the problem statement, applying the concept or methods founded from the literature review for solving the problem. All the information needs explanation clearly due to significance for allow reader understanding easily. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, in short (MCS) for collecting the data.

A research projects on micro wind turbine generator street lamp renewable energy is consideration many sectors. Due to the problem statement been listed, if want to build the micro wind turbine generator street lamp on urban must consideration the wind energy collected system. In the urban, it consists of housing area, office building, highway road and Leisure Park. Different area are having the different rate of air flowing. Therefore, the wind energy collected system is requiring finding the solution method, ensuring the wind turbine system able to collect the energy. Based on the literature review, have been collect 3 methods to solve the problem. Firstly, is about the multiple wind wheel wind power device, in short (MWD).

This method is designing the wind turbine system installed in vertically. The generator put in middle of the generator room. Steel tower must in circle type because it is the stationary axis the trusses turn around. When the air flowing, the multiple levels might be turn around and collect the wind. Other benefits for this is the require capacity is small. Therefore, this method is suitable to apply on the micro wind turbine street lamp.

The next method for improving to collect the wind power energy is wind turbine generator, in short (WTG). This method is using the permanent magnet generator to generate the turbine rotating. When the air flowing is lower, the system will more generate to collect the wind energy. In order this method also can be apply on the micro wind turbine street lamp. The last method for improving to collect the wind power is the axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generators (AFPMSG). This method has an outer -rotor construction for convenient mounting to the turbine rotor structure. It’s directly couple with vertical axis wind turbine. Based on this method solution, also can apply on the micro wind turbine street lamp.

The next problem statement is the energy storage system. To build the micro turbine wind generator street lamp also requires to consideration the energy storage system. From the project design, the street lamp is a vertical aluminum tower. In base of tower must install the energy storage system for redundancy the system. Through the review on the literature review, has been collect 2 methods to improving the design. Firstly, is the wind energy conversion system, in short (WES). This system is make the collection wind energy into the system and generate out the more reliability of energy, when the system accepting the high amount of power it will keeping in the storage , and when needed the system will automated to release the energy to generate. The next method is the flywheel energy storage system, in short (FES). This also a method of storage the energy, it make through the high steady inertia system to generate, the kinetic energy will be storage. All energy storage system is to generate reliability energy to generate the system.

The last problem statement is the transmission of the wind turbine power system. When the wind power was been collected at the generator, sometime needed to transfer the power to other location, therefore the transmission also important. Based on the literature review, the method been founded is the compressed air energy storage, in short (CASE). This also a type of storage system, but then it apply the transmission system for ensure the energy transferring in stable rate. In conclusion, the problem background solution has solved due the method from other researcher.


Research design and justification / limitations:

In the methodology, must provide the scope of research, the scope of research is includes the depth of investigation, content, sample, size, geographical and theoretical coverage as well as the time scope. At this section needed to justification the applied research method. The research project is micro turbine wind energy generator street lamp. Application of street lamp is installment on the ground and providing the light intensive. The project is design almost similar with common street lamp, the only few part are different which is the top is consists of the wind turbine for generate the wind energy. And the bottom part consists of energy storage system for storage the energy.

The tower of the project is using the aluminum as basic material, due to the market requirement able to change the material depend on needed. For the wind turbine also using aluminum as material because is avoid get rusty easily. The lamp of the project is using the light emitted diode (LED) the reason of choose LED as lamp because it save energy and good quality.

Based on the calculation, the wind power street lamp is capable of producing around 150W of power when the wind were blowing and the street lamp save excess energy generated in a battery for using while without energy supply. Due to using the LED as lamp, that powers their high efficiency LED through the night.

Since every location and project is different ,urban green energy is taking a components focused approach to the street lamp design – the led light wind turbine , tower height and battery storage are all easily scaled to best fit a particular project.

There are some advantages available of the project. Low cost for generate power; compare with normal energy resource wind power is the most low cost compare within. Other advantage is providing lightning of light during the midnight.

The limitation is the street lamp needed to consideration the place to installment, the best location is near by the shore, because just near the sea. The air blow is higher.

Project Aims and Objectives:

Research objective:

The objective of the research is the statements of the specific of main goal from the purpose of the research study. Due to the research objective, to make the identifying on the problem or question during the research. Firstly, determine the important of renewable energy in the worldwide, due to the reason of minimizing of natural resource. Secondly, to determine the wind power energy system is the process which through the wind flowing to make the rotary on the generator to generate the mechanical power or electricity. Amount collection of the electric power can convert to supply electricity power. Thirdly, analysis the ability of wind power to alternative the natural resources, wind is a natural environment source, it is inexhaustible source compare with the gases, fuel and metal materials all this natural resources. This phenomenon is facts; therefore it’s able to replacing the natural resources.

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Furthermore, the objective of the research is identifying the advantages of wind power generator, advantages of wind energy is a free renewable resource, a source of clean, non-polluting and electricity. It’s also able to reducing the carbon emission. Next, of the objective is determine the amount of the energy in the wind be captured, according the case study, a wind turbine are horizontal axis variety, it installment at wind farm, when the air flowing, turbine might be turning and generate the electric current. And also identifying the wind turbine pose a safety hazard, die to the wind turbine do not use combustion to generate electricity in order to don’t produce air emissions. Therefore the surface areas of the turbine are without any polluted, the health and safety attach as important.

Objective of the research also include the analysis the potential on market requirement for the wind power generator, base on the minimizing of natural resource, definitely markets are requirement the wind power. Next objective is analysis the cost of wind power compare with conventional power plants, base on the wind power is free, the cost of generate energy might be low cost than others. Another objective is to identifying the amount of electricity power is generating by wind turbine generator. Last objective is to determine the stability of transmission of the storage energy source to generator, ensure the transmission process with balance.

Research question:

What is the important of renewable energy in the worldwide?

What is wind power energy system?

What is the ability of wind power to alternative the natural resources?

What are the advantages of wind power generator?

How much of the energy in the wind be captured?

Do the wind turbines pose a safety hazard?

What is the potential on market for this Wind Turbine Generator?

What is the cost of wind power competitive with conventional power plants?

A wind turbine generate able to generate how amount of electricity

What is the stability of transmission the energy source to generator?

Significance of this project:

Base on the research from literature review and problem statement, and from the objective of research are research out the importance of the project. Significance of this project is able to minimizing the natural resource amount uses, avoiding the wasted of natural resource. Through the renewable resource also can cause environment be green reduce the polluted. According the earth hour organization, this organization will organize an occasion to encourage people switch light for 1 hour, if this research project has been produce , it’s may helping people apply the knowledge of important natural resource. This project also will cause the environmental more beautiful and clean. The urban will looks more elegant and fashion. The last reason is decreasing the carbon emission in earth atmosphere due to the global warming.


Expected result:

Based on the research, this research study has founded some relevant of research information from others researcher. Basically, according these few recent years, many of researchers are making study research on the renewable energy. Renewable energy is be valued by all researcher. Because the renewable energy resource having plenty of advantages and benefits. For example, is able minimizing the polluted of environmental, replacing the natural resources, due to global warming are getting more serious, renewable energy are able to minimizing the side affect on this.

A micro wind turbine generator street lamp is a creative and invention design. According to the market, already available the solar panel street lamp, but the solar is only available for collect the energy from the sunlight. Mean during the midnight, the solar panel can’t be collecting the energy. This is the disadvantage of the solar panel. On the other hand, a wind turbine street lamp having an advantages is the air flowing is available for anytime, no need to wait on day only able to function.

Expectation of the result is this project is more organization want to supporting this project. Through the organization and media, spread the detail information to worldwide. And also governments are willing to plan to installment the wind turbine generator street lamp in their own city.

Others expected result, have others researcher interesting this research project. And these researcher reinforcement more creativity idea and more advance idea for replacing.


Figure 1: Gantt chart

From figure 1 is shown the Gantt chart for whole final year project timescales. The total period is for 9months.

W1 = week 1

W2 = week 2

W3 = week 3

W4 = week 4


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Bilinton, R and Guang Bai, 2004, generating capacity adequacy associated with wind energy in energy conversion, Canada September 2004, IEEE.org, pp 641-646

Fang Lin Luo, 2010, Design of wind turbine energy system in IPEC,2010 conference proceedings, Singapore 27-29 October 2010, IEEE.org, pp110-116

Hu,P, karki,R and bilinton, R, 2009, reliability evaluation of generating systems containing wind power and energy storage in generation, transmission & distribution, IET, Canada August 2009, IEEE.org, pp783-792

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Ming-Shun Lu, Chung-Liang Chang, Wei-Jen Lee and Li Wang, 2008, combining the wind power generating system with energy storage equipment in industry applications society annual Meeting, 2008 IAS’08 IEEE, Taiwan 5-9 October 2008 , IEEE.org, pp 1-6

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