The main objectives of this mini project were: to provide a review of key concepts and issues relevant to solid waste management for Small ,Medium ,and Large Hotel in Mauritius ; to analyse and evaluate the hotel solid waste management (HSWM) program in Mauritius and to suggest recommendations and areas for further research. The following data collection methods were used in this study: deep review of documents and literature, interviews and a propose methodology to carry out the study.
Tourism can bring both positive and negative impacts. One aspect of tourism that can have an impact on local communities is solid waste management (SWM). Improper SWM can lead to pollution and deterioration of the aesthetic appeal of tourist destinations. However ,may airline agency are assessed the hotels for safety and ecology before placing the tourist in the hotels.
A proposed survey questionnaire has been designed and could be administered at a later stage for future evaluation of solid waste in small, medium, and large hotel .The questionnaire has been designed in such a way to be able to analyse all solid waste within a hotel ,example ,waste from kitchen ,store ,office ,Front Office ,Laundry ,Housekeeping and so on
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Waste minimization is essential in the hotel industry with regards to waste reduction, reuse, recovery and disposal. This is also referred to as the Hierarchy of Waste Management .From the literature review obtained from different sources, small ,medium and large hotel can adopt the hierarchy of waste Minimization ,Reduction ,Reuse and Recovery .However it is also noticed that there is advantages and disadvantages using Waste Minimization Approach .
Now ,there is a lot of recycling companies in Mauritius which collect or hotel go to disposed all the materials to be recycled such as glasses to Glass Gallery ,Metals to Steel Scrap Ltd ,Plastic Bottle to Polypet Recyclers Ltd ,Paper to Agripac or Dakhri Paper .
If Solid Waste is not properly managed by the hotel ,there can be a environmental degradation and pollution, resource depletion and damage to marine ecosystem. The EPA 2002 is enforced by the Ministry of Local Government .According to the EIA ,no hotel construction till the approval of the EIA Report
Many hotels generate above 20% of food waste , Green Waste and can be composting .According to the Ministry of Local Government ,very few hotels carry out the composting and many of the hotels whether small ,medium or large do not have expertise on composting .
It is also evident that small and medium hotels pay less attention for the implementation of waste minimization than larger hotels, because the costs outweigh the benefits. The small and medium hotels have limited space for them to apply the minimization totally .But to some extent small and medium hotels can apply the hierrerchy .Concepts such as appropriate technology, cleaner production, life
cycle assessment and environmental management systems can be useful for improving
how solid waste management is approached.
Conclusions and lessons learned from the literature are presented and links
between concepts in the literature and .recommendations made on how to management waste in these hotels
First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Mrs Geeta Devi Unmar for her valuable meetings guide ,support for my mini project on Solid Waste Management for Hotel(Small, Medium and Large ) . I am also grateful Mr Prakash Kowlessur ,Director Solid Waste Unit ,and Mr Micheal Marie ,Principal Enforcement Officer ,Ministry of Local Government , for his helpful coordination with his staffs to collect the quantity of waste per week. Special thank to Mr. Shardoo ,Environment Officer at Ministry of Environment and NDU for his useful information on EIA guide line for coastal hotel .Finally special a thank to Mr. Lan Pin Wing Michel,Statistic Section, Ministry of Tourism
Table of Contents
1.1 An Overview of Solid Waste In Mauritius
The rapid industrialisation and urbanization during the past decade have led to changing production and consumption patterns that continue to present new demands for natural resources and create new waste streams. It is estimated that solid waste produced in Mauritius is about 380,000 tonnes a year (or 1,200 tonnes per day) and is expected to reach 418,000 tonnes in 2014.Each Mauritian generates around 0.7 kg of solid waste daily and this is expected to rise to 0.9 kg by 2010. The development of an integrated solid waste management strategy is among the priorities identified in the National
Environmental Strategies to reduce future costs from environment degradation
The increase in the economic development has changed the life style and the consumption pattern of the population. Consequently, this has led to an increase of the amount of solid waste generated.
1.2 Composition of MSM
It is found that most of the waste is organic in nature and can be compost easily
(Fact Sheet- Ministry of Environment)
1.3 Waste Composition from Hotel
There are three main sources of waste from hotels (office/guest rooms, gardens, and kitchen/restaurant), and each source contains different types of waste. For example, there are a lot of compostable, which can be biologically decomposed, present in kitchen-waste while more recyclables are present in waste from office/guest rooms (Chopra, 2004)
According to Reseearch ,Dr Wan Li Liao ,2008 A typical hotel’s waste stream in Belize consists of the following component percentages:
paper/cardboard 27%, food waste 45%, yard waste 8%, plastic 5%, metal 5%, glass 5%,
demolition and construction waste 3%, other 2%.
1.4 Disposal Of Solid Waste In Mauritius
Formerly solid wastes were disposed of in open dumping grounds, but due to public complaints of the nuisance caused by the foul odour emitted by the putrefying waste, all the open dumps have now been closed. The Ministry of Local Government and the Local Authorities are responsible for collection and transportation of household and commercial wastes. Today, solid wastes are collected and disposed of at the Mare Chicose landfill through transfer stations.
There are presently 5 transfer stations in Mauritius namely:
– Poudre d’Or
– Roche Bois
– La Brasserie
– St Martin
– La Laura
Wastes are compacted at the transfer station to reduce their volume before they are transported in larger vehicles to the sole landfill of the country which is at Mare Chicose.
In hotel actually the waste is collected in different bins, that is , segregation at source .Waste carrier come to collect the waste and then transfer to land fill .For Most of the hotel the transfer is subcontracted to cleaning service such as Securiclean, Maxiclean ltd or even to private lorry .Sometime due to poor management of solid waste , poor storage , and irregularity of waste carrier to collect waste ,make rise to bad smell ,rodents and sometimes it is not esthetics .
Now the tourism industry is one of the three pillars of the Mauritian Economy. Mauritius is become one of the most important international tourist destinations in the Indian Ocean. The tourist arrivals for the year 2009 rose up to 413,504, with a forecast of 1.0 million tourist arrivals for the end of year 2010.
Due to the expansion of tourism industry , there were total of 97 registered hotels in operation by the end of June 2009 (C.S.O., 2009).
Hotel activities produce huge amount of wastes, which tend to increase as the number of hotels increases. The problem of waste generation associated to environmental pollution is a challenge to hotels with regards to waste collection and disposal. Our space land fill become limited
Much emphasis is placed on ecotourism. Ecotourism in fact consists of three elements: natural-based, educational and sustainable management (ecoT mgt and assess) Mauritius itself is described as an ecotourism destination in the Indian Ocean and Africa region. (encyclo of ecoT). One example of an “ecogreen” hotel in Mauritius is Le Coco Beach Hotel, whereby ecotourism practices are applied (ecot themes..)
“Ecogreen” hotels can help to protect the environment, make hotel operations sustainable, reduce cost and liabilities, and improve health and safety. Since hotel operations such as housekeeping, bar and restaurant, kitchen, greenscaping, administrative office and staff quarters, generate large quantities of solid waste, a good solid waste management system is essential.
Priority must be given to the development and implementation of a sustainable and integrated solid waste management system, encouraging current practices such as reuse, recycling, composting, waste reduction and prevention, facilities for waste disposal and technologies to convert waste into energy.
1.5 Research Goals
The improvement of solid waste management is one of the challenges faced by tourist
destinations in Mauritius.
This mini project provides full literature review of the HSWM program in Mauritius to disseminate information about an innovative solid waste management program in a tourist destination. This study will explore the topics
Conclusions,recommendations and future research directions will be presented at the end of the study.
The research objectives for the study were:
To provide a review of key concepts and issues related to solid waste management in Mauritius
. To analyse and evaluate the hotel solid waste management (HSWM) program in Mauritius pertaining to Small ,Medium and Large Hotel
To provide space to the landfill
. To suggest recommendations and areas for further research.
From the outcome of this mini project I have try to identify the HSWM within the Small , Medium and Large Hotel and how the system is working within the hotel ,that the hotel staff is facing and this can serve a starting point in the Hotel for improving its conditions, infrastructure, work environment and attitudes towards the waste management ,and eco environment .It will be a great benefit for the Small and Medium Hotel
2.0 Literature review
2.1.1 What is waste
Wastes are those materials no longer required by an individual, institution or industry. Wastes are thus regarded as by-products or end products of the production and consumption process respectively. (Source: A. Vesilind, 1995)
2.1.2 Solid waste is that material which arises from various human activities and which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. Examples of solid wastes:
furniture and toys
domestic refuse (garbage)
discarded appliances and vehicles
empty cans, paint cans and compressed gas cylinders ,plastics and bottle
construction and demolition debris,
2.1.3 SOURCES AND TYPES OF WASTES
Wastes are produced by human activities and include:
1. Municipal wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Agricultural wastes
5. Energy generation wastes
2.1.3 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type that includes predominantly
household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. There are five broad categories of MSW:
Biodegradable waste: food & kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).
Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.
Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.
Composite wastes: Waste clothing, Tetra Paks, Waste plastics such as toys.
Domestic hazardous waste & toxic waste: medication, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe
2.4 Waste Generation And Collection
In Mauritius waste collection is undertaken by the local authorities which consist of 5 municipalities for urban areas and 4 district councils for rural regions. More recent figures indicate that close to 800 tonnes of waste is collected daily and this figure is set to increase to 1000 tonnes daily in the coming years.
The following is a break up of the sources of waste by tonnage.
Trade and Industry: 150 tonnes/ day
Domestic waste : 600 tonnes/ day
Hotels : 50 tonnes/ day
It has been estimated that, on average, each person generates 0.6 kg of waste daily.
Whereas an average family generates 800 kg per year.
(Solid Waste Unit ,Ministry of Local Government)
Type of Waste Percentage of Waste
Table 2 -Tonnage of Waste -Mare Chicose Landfill for Year 2007 to 2009
From the graph it can be concluded that the generation on waste is being kept increase.
Metal cans: It is estimated that 28 million metal cans are imported annually and this is set to increase at a rate of 5.7% yearly.
2.4.1 HOTEL WASTE GENARATION
Each hotel room generates an estimated 9.2 kg of waste per day (Wisnu 1998b). In Indonesia, per capita waste generation rates were 0.65-0.83 kg/day in large cities, 0.55-0.63 kg/day in medium cities and 0.47-0.5 kg/day in small towns
(Jindal et al., 1998). Therefore, the amount of waste generate per hotel room is over ten times the amount of waste generated per day .From both study it was concluded that 80% of waste is organic
2.4.2 Waste Disposal
The authorised dumps are found at:
(1) Poudre D’Or
(2) Mt St Pierre
(3) Riche Fond
(5) La Martiniere
An unspecified number of unauthorised dumps exist throughout the island. Though illegal dumping takes place at these sites, the authorities turn a blind eye because of the lack of appropriate structures to deal with all the wastes generated on the island.
The present method of waste disposal cannot continue for long as the dumps are overflowing with heterogeneous waste and open dumps have obvious disadvantages like the emission of air pollutants and odours, contamination of the water table with seepage and contamination of aquatic resources like rivers and the lagoon.
The Roche Bois dump also situated close to the shore receives domestic, commercial and industrial waste from the Port Louis area. About 100 tonnes of solid waste are discharged daily at the site and then incinerated. The adjoining lagoon is subsequently polluted with all types of solid waste, it also a receptacle for sewage and industrial waste discharge.
2.5 Waste Management
Waste management’ shall mean “the collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations and aftercare of disposal sites”
However the newer concepts of ‘Waste management’ talk about ‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of waste’ over and above waste disposa1.
2.5.1Waste Minimization Approaches to Hotel Waste
The Waste Hierarchy is a list of approaches to managing waste, arranged in order of
importance. Below is a common graphical representation of the Hierarchy, with the least preferred option for managing waste, Recovery, located at the right end and the most preferred option, Reduction, located at the beginning left.
WASTE MINIMIZAT10N APPRAOCHES
Waste Minimization Techniques Delivered by Hotel
Reduction is the topmost approach in the hierarchy of waste management. It is perhaps the most important element of the waste hierarchy and also the one which presents the toughest challenges. According to the book “Waste Treatment and Disposal”, reduction “is the strategy that waste production from commercial consumption should be reduced. It concerns the consumption and purchasing of longer lasting products, and products which are likely to result in less waste when they are used. Examples of waste reduction are: buying by bulk, and using alternatives.
This is the second most important approach in the hierarchy of waste management. Reuse is the collection and reuse of materials, for example cleaning and reuse of glass bottles.” Reuse is a more effective use of resources. Many of these products can be reused instead of being disposed of to landfill Many waste products have the potential to be reused enabling purchasing cost savings at the facility, as well as decreasing waste management cost. The approach of reusing products can create changes in attitudes towards disposable products. Examples of products that can be reuse are: used tyres, glass and plastic bottles, scrap paper, and plastic bags.
This is the third and final approach in the hierarchy of waste management.
It includes two types of waste recovery, which are recycling and composting. According to the book “Waste Treatment and Disposal”, “(1) Recycling. The potential to recycle material from waste is high, Recycling: reprocessing of a discarded waste material to make it suitable for subsequent re-use either for its original form or for other purposes
Recycling is beneficial in two ways: it reduces the inputs and reduces the amount of waste produced for disposal.Finally on recycling we can save transport vehicles ,maintenance cost ,fuel cost
In Mauritius, figures for 2000 show that only 15 820 tonnes of waste per year was being recycled instead of 100,000 tonnes (Min. of Env. & N.D.U-2003).
2.6 Benefits of Waste Minimization
The benefits of the implementation of waste minimization at the hotel whether small ,medium or large facility are as follows:
1. Less waste generation will be produced due to the implementation of waste minimization programs in hotels and the support of tourist visitors and employees. As a result, the market trends, which attract and motivate tourists to visit increases since the environmental quality is maintained. More tourist will be attracted
2. Giving back to the community and showing environmentally friendly concerns also enhances the outlook of the hotel’s public image. Being socially responsible shows how much the business cares about the outside elements that makes the business successful, and not just about profits
3. Having an environmental focus of the hotel’s operations creates a market niche separating that particular hotel from its competitors, whom are not eco-friendly. An environmental focus is relatively new in the hotel industry.
5. Increasing profits result since an abundant amount of money purchasing new products which the facility could have been using the reusable products instead and paying less for waste disposal.
2.7 Difficulties of Waste Minimization
Just as there are many benefits of waste minimization, there are indeed many difficulties.
1. Although waste reduction, reuse and recovery have become an integral part of many hotel management plans, space limitations and finance often make this process problematic for some facilities.
2. Limited knowledge and training can be strenuous for managers to discipline their employees in carrying out these environmentally friendly practices. Lack of control over these behaviors can be quite demanding.
3 At the smaller hotels, the costs outweigh the benefits leaving the facility with no incentive to carry out this sustainable way of operating. Environmental awareness is growing at a slow rate.
2.7 Tourism: Solid waste generation and impacts
Hotel activities tend to produce large amount of solid wastes; waste paper, stationery and ink cartridges from the administrative offices and staff quarters; old furniture equipments from guest rooms; food scraps, broken glassware and other solid waste from the kitchen, bar and restaurants; newspapers and magazines from the front desk, waste vegetation from greenscaping and out of use equipments from the maintenance department.
The tourism industry can have positive impacts for a country. For example: increase of national profit, enhancement of the country’s global image, bringing in investors and improved infrastructure. On the other hand, negative effects are also felt; environmental degradation and pollution, resource depletion and damage to marine ecosystem.
2.8 Importance of a good Solid Waste Management
Waste is unsightly, malodorous and unaesthetic, polluting land, air and water, clogging drainage systems, posing serious public health risks, and restricting potential land use (Pernia,1992 ).Improper SWM can result in pollution and health risks and waste, if not disposed of properly can become a nuisance and a health hazard.Decomposing waste harbor disease vectors, attracts vermin and help the proliferation of rodents and rats (national state of
Allegro Papgayo hotel in Costa Rica was closed because of bad and unsustainable waste management practices which lead to ocean pollution in the surroundings and bad smelling (“Costa Rica’s Occidental Grand Papagayo to close?”,2008). A good SWM is essential and should emphasize on environmental protection and health
2.9 Approach to a Sustainable and Integrated Solid Waste Management
At present, more and more hotels are implementing sustainable practices to reduce tourism impacts on the environment by using water, energy and other materials efficiently. These are termed as “ecogreen” hotels. This reduces cost for waste disposal and increased profits. In Mauritius some hotels like Oberoi Hotel and Le Plantation using recycles items and one restaurant from Le Plantation Hotel is made of all recycles materials like all plates ,glasses ,chairs ,tables and so on .Another example is that At Amelia Island Plantation, Amelia Island, FL, more than 5.5 tons of waste is collected for recycling each week.
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2.9.1 Energy recovery
Treating waste thermally WTE with heat recovery can help to supply a clean and trustworthy energy under the form of heat and power. This can contribute to saving energy (Pavlas, et al., 2009). One example is Payatas, whereby electricity is produced from methane gas (Serrona, Yu, 2009). Energy recovery is a very sustainable solution to Plastic Solid Waste since plastics have a high calorific content and embodied energy. Cement kilns and fluidized beds are utilized to recover energy from PSW (S.M. Al-Salem et al., 2009).
Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance. This substance, called compost, is a wonderful conditioner for soil. It is the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste to produce a stable product such as soil conditioners and growing material for plants. Composting can save money for transfer of waste to landfill
Composting is found to be the best way to deal with organic types of waste generated (Narayana, 2009). In fact, for solid waste which have a high moisture content and low calorific value, for example: food wastes and greenscaping wastes, aerobic composting is the best method for managing this waste . ( Narayana, 2009).
2.9.3 WASTE REDUCTION
Refillable amenity dispensers can replace soap, lotion, shampoo and conditioner bottles in hotel guest rooms. In Food and Beverage they can purchase large tin butter and refilling in small porcelain pot rather than to buy very small butter with smaller plastic container They can use Beverage Dispenser rather than can .They reduce waste, slash operating costs and save time. Housekeeping managers save staff time when they buy highly concentrated cleaning supplies.
Engineering managers cut waste and increase productivity when they switch from incandescent lights to fluorescent or LED bulbs. Fluorescent bulbs last five times as long as incandescents and LED’s operate twenty-five times longer.
Modular mattresses allow hotels to replace just the mattress tops, not the rest of the units. They extend the seven-year average life of hotel mattresses by five to ten years.
Hotel restaurants reduce waste by using washable table cloths and dinnerware, reusable coffee filters and by providing condiments in bulk dispensers. Hotels can eliminate bottled water waste by using filtered water.
There are many more waste prevention strategies that hotels could deploy, such as: eliminating unrequested newspapers; requiring documents to be printed on both sides of the page and with a smaller font and margins; asking hotel suppliers to reduce excess packaging; and having staff use permanent mugs and cups, rather than disposables. The old furniture and the bed with the bed sheet can be donated to the infirmary institutions for reused and at the same time their CSR increases.
Products with minimal packaging can be ordered.
Do grass cycling with the grass from the lawn.
Stop providing disposable mugs for example, buy company mugs.
Buy durable towels, napkins, etc.
Encourage the guests to return the reusable products.
Introduce the waste prevention programme to the guests. (ecogreenhotel, 2009).
2.9.5 . Environmental Management Systems
Environmental management systems (EMSs) provide a framework that can help
organizations incorporate tools such as cleaner production. EMSs involve the achievement of environmental goals through the management of environmental aspects in a consistent way. Environmental goals ,policies ,measurable objectives are set by the organisation and achieved through the control of operations. Waste minimization can be an Environmental Policy and objective set is less than 2% of Solid Waste Generation or Zero Waste
2.9.6 EIA Guide Line For Proposed Coastal Hotel Projects ,July 2004
In 2008, some 44 EIA licences were granted of which 12 (27% ) were issued to land parcelling and 8 (18% ) were provided to coastal hotels and related works
There is an increase of hotel in our coastal region and an EIA is requires under section 15 of the EPA 2002 for the coastal hotels .Under section 3.7 of the EIA guideline ,July 2004 ,for each impact the section should state steps to avoid or reduce it ,for example ,is as follows :Source ,Type ,Generation ,,Collection and disposal of solid wastes
One EIA report for Proposal for the Construction of new Hotel at Tamarin Medine Ltd had been verified and found that that the following statement has been made
Waste generated from the kitchen and accessory services if not properly managed may cause direct impact on the surrounding .Indirect impacts may be caused by proliferation of rats ,insects and emission of bad smell (EIA Report ,2009 -Ministry of Environment and N.D.U.)
2.9.7 Impact Mitigation Measures
Hotels will be committed to appropriately manage its solid wastes. As much as possible ,solid waste wastes will be sorted for its different components. Biodegradable waste will be composted .Other waste will be kept in sealed bins located in the back house prior being carted away by licensed companies .Measures for waste management to be implemented are as follows :
Sort out wastes at source (glass, paper, biodegradable substances ,metals, cans
Compost garden green waste and kitchen waste
Provide special bin for disposal of batteries ,cartridges ,bulbs etc
(EIA report Tamarin Medine Ltd ,2009)
2.9.8 Environment and Health
Waste is unsightly and malodourous, polluting land, air and water, clogging drainage
systems, posing serious public health risks, and restricting potential land use
The burning of garbage releases smoke and hazardous substances. Leachate from the waste can contaminate soil, surface water and groundwater. Mosquitoes that can carry dengue fever as last year this disease recur. Mosquitoes breed in fresh water from accumulated rainfall in cans and bottles .Disease vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents thrive on solid waste
Workers often do not use safety equipment such as facemasks, ear plugs, gloves and
proper footwear, and there is a need for education about health and safety issues
Waste recycling can reduce waste disposal costs for local authorities by extending the life of landfills, reducing the need to invest in transport vehicles and equipment, reducing vehicle operation and maintenance costs, and reducing fuel consumption for transporting waste Businesses are provided with cheap raw materials. In Mauritius some hotels are used recycle materials such as the plates make of glasses ,chairs, kitchen waste use for composting and used for gardening .Thus the use of recycled materials reduces the need to import raw materials, meaning that less money is spent on foreign currency.
3.1 Research Methods
Information was gathered using a variety of methods to gain a better understanding of the situation, issues, perspectives and priorities. The primary data will be obtained by applying the following methods namely Interviews , Site Visit for Observations ,Email of Survey Questionnaires to the selected Hotel
The secondary data will be obtained by reviewing the literature obtaining from the goggle scholar ,University of Mauritius Library Search ,Publications ,,Magazine Articles and Resent News .Some information will also be obtained from the www.lexpress.mu -Newspaper L’Express
3.2 Document and Literature Review
Literature concerning solid waste management in hotel industry was reviewed. Documents were collected from various sources such as universities, industry associations, foreign agencies, government institutions ,AHRIM ,Books ,Magazine Articles ,Publications ,Present News ,research scholar using goggle and statistic office ,Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit ,Ministry Of Local Government ,Solid Waste Unit
Interviews will be conducted with the Small ,Medium and Large Hotels , To learn about the Hotel Solid Waste Management (HSWM) program, I will interview staff mainly the Maintenance Manager ,Quality Assurance Manager , Health and Safety Officer ,the Head of Restaurant ,Chef Cook ,Food and Beverage Manager ,Executive Housekeeper from those selected hotel
Successive conversations with the staffs will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of the issues that emerged. An initial set of questions will be prepared as per our Survey Questionnaire Appendix I in advance and additional questions were asked as the interviews will be conducted. This site visit interview will be appropriate for our mini project
According to Tourism Welfare Fund Authority and AHRIM the following hotels are classified as
NO OF HOTELS FROM LIST
50 – 100
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