There are mainly six different kinds of pollution with reference to Sengupta, D., et al., (2001) in the world today. They are air, water, land, noise, radioactive and thermal pollution.
Based on the article, air pollution is caused by exorbitance of harmful gases or vapours (which are the mixture of chemical molecules) released into the atmosphere. The emission rate of these gases or vapours is lower than the intake rate of different cycle. A few common cycles would be carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
It defines that water pollution is the spoliation of water by toxic or unsafe chemicals that are being released into lakes and ocean.
Land pollution, also known as soil pollution, which is cause by solid waste (e.g. food), change of soil chemical condition and the build-up of our non-biodegradable materials (e.g. glass) in our daily lives as agreed by Sengupta, D., et al. and Rita, P.,.
Cited from both authors, Neil, V. D. and Sengupta, D., et al., noise pollution is usually the use of industrial machines, vehicles and us, human. Basically, it is the annoyance or a commotion. ??
According to Sengupta, D., radioactive pollution is the waste from a nuclear reaction. The dispersal of atoms apart (or nuclear reaction) which destroys humans and the environment produces nuclear energy to generate electricity.
Also, the main cause of thermal pollution is the heat energy produced by industries increases the environmental temperature which affects the melting of our ice glaciers causing a rise in sea levels.
This report is to evaluate the ongoing air pollution caused by air transportation and to raise the level of awareness of the public of Singapore on what we can do to save the environment.
The main contributing factor to air pollution are carbon dioxide () and carbon monoxide (CO).
Chart : Breakdown of CO2 Contribution in 2005 (adapted from Singaporeâ€™s National Climate Change Strategy, p.15)
Figure 1 shows the various contribution of carbon dioxide () in Singapore during the year 2005. Over the years, the National Environment Agency (NEA) implemented high standards in order to minimise the amount of contributed to the atmosphere. The level of emissions were enforced to an acceptable standard to ensure clean quality air.
NEA requires industries to conduct emission test either on their own or engage certified consultants. This makes sure that the industries would be able to keep track of their emission activity. NEA also imposed the type of fuel that would emit minimal amount of CO (which is one of the main contributing factors to air pollution) by motor vehicles.
Information and data presented in this report are secondary research mainly collated from internet sources like NEA websites.
2.0 Air pollution
Air is the most important element for human beings to survive in. The air we breathe, plants that uses the air to make food are the main concerns in our lives. Not only can it create a great impact on us, it affects every living thing in this world that we are living in.
2.1 Main Causes of Air Pollution
The main contributing of pollution to the atmosphere is . Listed below are the 5 main contributing factors of in Singapore. Hence, I will elaborate on transportation and narrow it down to air transportation finally.
Based on Chart 1 above, industries have the biggest contribution of to the atmosphere. The industry sector itself contributes 54%. Based on the findings of Sengupta, D., et al., the amount of pollutants released without the use of proper filters could induced more into the environment through the use of equipment and processes in all industries and factories.
They also mention that chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are given off by the use of mainly refrigerators and aerosol applications. It could affect the ozone () by separating the bond of into a free radicals.
The next major contribution of will be transportation where it stands at 19%. There are many different kinds of transport here in Singapore ranging from motorcycles to motor vehicles to airplanes.
As mention by Sengupta, D., et al., the combustion of fuel produces lead oxide (PbO), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S). These are harmful gases that are being released which could cause haze and smog causing low visibility. Other than the air quality being affected, the gases dissolve in the water vapour causing the result of the water to be acidic.
Close to the amount contributed to transportation, buildings itself is at 16%. How will buildings contribute about the same amount of as transportation? Buildings that suffer from fire damages or any natural disasters that are being accessed by building specialist and found to be unstable, had to be torn down and/or rebuild. From researchers Sengupta, D., et al., they believed that crumbling rubble and debris from the buliding will remain and settle into the atmosphere causing smog or even haze.
2.1.4 Consumers / Households
Justify why transport and not industry
2.2.2 Motor Vehicle
4.1 Current Solutions
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