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The Sustainable Event Management Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 2747 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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This report will general introduce what is sustainability and to link all the concepts and theories to the Beijing Olympics. All the sustainability policies will link to the Triple-Bottom-Line theory and with suitable recommendations. The general idea of what International Olympic Committee IOC is about and the role of IOC play with the Olympic. All the economic, environmental and social impacts that did by Beijing during the Olympic Games. The environmental successful point and failures that the Beijing Olympic faced. How Beijing can improve or how the London Olympic can learn from Beijing


The purpose of this report is to critically analyse concepts and theories of sustainability relevant to the events industry. All these sustainability policies will link to the Triple-Bottom-Line theory and suitable recommendations will be shown.

Sustainability development means to protect the environment, but still meet the need of human, without compromising the future generations need and development. The term ‘sustainability’ derives from a political and socially constructed terminology that supports the universal policy of ‘sustainable development’ (Dresner, 2002; Rogers et al., 2008).

In more recent times with a greater appreciation by nations of environmental matters and a move to a more sustainable society, the IOC requires the Olympic Games host country to implement strategies to protect the environment, observe concepts of equity and social justice and, where possible, minimise consumption of energy and water. The wastes minimise and to ensure that it is recycled as much as possible are the critical factors for selection when a country is bidding for the Game.

The Beijing Olympic was the greenest Olympic ever, and will prove by articles, journals, etc.

The aim and objectives

To critically analysis the sustainability policy of the Olympics, create linkage to the Triple Bottom Line theory and provide sustainable recommendations for critical appraisal of the Olympics sustainability policy.

International Olympic Committee IOC

The Olympic were nearly ended in 1976 Montreal Olympics, Canada. Due to the large venues built and the investment was 10 times over from the original budget. Olympics not only need to carry a heavy debt burden but also damage the environment. Therefore, Olympics now focus on the sustainable development when the cities bid for the Olympics (Aim of Olympic 2008).

One of IOC roles is ‘to encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly’ (IOC 2011)

The Olympic Movement Agenda 21 was examined during the third IOC World Conference on Sport and the Environment in Rio in 1999, and approved by the IOC session in Seoul in June 1999. The goal of Agenda 21 is to increase the participation of local residents, to improve the social-economic and health benefits they derive from it, strengthen international cooperation projects for sustainable development, help combat social exclusion, encourage new consumer habits, promote a sports infrastructure which is even better adapted to social needs, and further improve the integration of development and environment concepts into sports policies (IOC 1999).

The Beijing Olympic 2008

The idea of “Green Olympic” in Beijing’s bid was the strongest element to win the right to host the 2008 Games. The Beijing Organising Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG)’s environmental programme was focused on improvement, protection and awareness-raising. The Olympic venues were constructed by environmentally friendly and energy-saving building materials. Beijing has put significant efforts to improve air quality, expand forestation, enhance public sewage and waste treatment systems.(IOC 2012)

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When Beijing was awarded the Games in 2001, the IOC Evaluation Committee noted: “Beijing currently faces a number of environmental pressures and issues, particularly air pollution. However, it has an ambitious set of plans designed, which are comprehensive enough to greatly improve Beijing’s overall environmental condition. These plans and actions will require a significant effort and financial investment. The result would be a major legacy for Beijing from the Olympic Games, which include increased environmental awareness among the population.” (IOC 2012)

As the first developing country to host the Olympic Games, US$17 billion was invested on environment initiatives by China for the Games. China was not only to fulfil its original promises in the bid, but also to gain great achievement on environment sustainability (UNEP, 2009).

Greenpeace has made a evaluation conducted that the BOCOG and the Beijing government had created a positive legacy in terms of environmental initiative for the city (Greenpeace, 2008).

The Beijing Olympics made a great environmental achievements, therefore, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau and BOCOG won the first-ever IOC Award for Sport and the Environment for Asia at the 8th World Conference on Sport and the Environment in Vancouver (Benjamin, 2009).

According to Managing Business Ethics, Triple Bottom Line was defined as the impacts of economic, social and environmental (Trevino & Nelson, 2011). The ‘triple bottom lint’ of the sustainable development referred to the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity.

Economic Impact

The Olympics always help to improve not a city, but also a country’s economy. Such mega-event requires considerable investments in infrastructural developments, sports venues, and other types of industries. Therefore, these will bring both short term and long term effects on the china’s economy and publicity.

Beijing reached its highest economic growth rate of 12.8 percent, a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of USD 6,331, and the fixed assets investment of USD 3.527 million in 2007. Based on the criteria issued by the World Bank, Beijing’s socio-economic development is graded on a world ranking in the range of the upper-middle level, recognizable for example by the increase of the average annual wage of 109.4 percent from 2001 to 2007.

For the Infrastructure Projects, according to the Beijing Olympic Action Plan, Beijing’s total investment in Olympic-related projects is expected to reach USD $180 billion and is divided into three different elements. The first part was used in the Olympic competition venues and the related facilities; the second was spent on city’s infrastructural development; the third part was invested in projects, such as environmental protection and transportation.

One of the largest projects was the enlargement of Beijing’s international airport, which became one of the world’s top five busiest airports during the Olympic season. In order to meet the high demand of air transportation a new terminal is being constructed amounting to a value of USD 2.1 billion, which will be the world’s largest terminal with a direct connection to the downtown area in 15 minute intervals. With the Number 3 Terminal being completed in February 2008, the three terminals of the airport will have a future total annual handling capacity of approximately 82 million passengers.

Beijing has spent USD 700 million on upgrading its public transportation system, in order to avoid the traffic conjunctions during normal or rush hours. There are several projects helped to ensure the Olympic tourists enjoyed an easy, fast and safe travel from one sporting event to another. Six new expressways will link the downtown area and the airport as well as other cities of China. Six new subway and light railway lines will allow for better travel connection. Additionally, several bus lanes have been introduced whereby, during rush hour, all vehicles except for public buses must keep clear. All construction sites were using environmentally friendly technologies and measures. For example, all old buses replaced with new ones that possess updated catalytic converters.


Beijing should push the industrial technology to a cleaner production. Renewable energy technology as solar lighting, geothermal heating and solar PV systems should be promoted widely during the Game. Smart design and energy efficient technologies must be used as the building standards for new buildings. Although the BOCOG has introduced environmentally friendly policies guidelines for construction or purchasing materials, because it is not mandatory, companies may not follow the guidelines.

Environmental Impact

Improve infrastructure to both run the 2008 Green Olympics needs, the need for sustainable development to achieve the capital.

“For the environmental aspects, the BOCOG had set a comprehensive framework in order to coordinate all the sustainability projects. BOCOG started in early 2002 to design an Environmental Management System (EMS) complying with the international standard ISO 14001.” (UNEP, 2009) The ISO 14001 standard is to establish an organized approach to reduce the impact of the environmental aspects which an organization has under its control. This standard helps the organizations to minimize their operational negative impacts on the environment (for example, air, waste, water), and continually to improve their environmental performance. The Committee passed the ISO 14001 certification audit in September 2005 and one year later was also certified according to the new 2004 release of the standard.

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Beijing has launched a new vehicle emission standard to EURO IV for the Olympics in order to improve the air quality. This emission standard is the strictest standard in the world. During the Games, 20% of the Olympic venue electricity was purchased from wind power station which supplies with clean wind sources. The first Beijing wind power generation station can generate 100 million KHz of electricity per which, that means this capacity can meet 100,000 families’ demand.

27 air quality sampling stations were set up, in order to monitor the index of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10). 18 temporary sampling stations were added during the Olympic Games. The Beijing air quality was improved by these measures. The air pollution was decreased by 50 percent in 2008, and SO2, CO, NO2 and PM10 were decreased respectively by 30%, 12%, 32% and 32% compared to1998. Beijing has built 14 sewage treatment plants and put in operation. The sewage treatment capacity rise from 320 million cubic metres in 2001 to 800 million cubic metres in 2008 and sewage treatment rate increased from 38 per cent to 90 per cent during the same period. By 2008, 57%of the city’s waste water had been treated and reused. In addition, the city’s forest coverage of more than 51.6%, the green coverage rate reached more than 43% of the urban centers, and the nature reserve area of ​​8.18% of the total area of ​​the city. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009)


Although the BOCOG has introduced the Olympic timber purchasing environment guidelines, they lose the opportunity to introduce the internationally recognizable timber purchasing policy, for example Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards for construction material. The landfill development and waste incineration were the failures, for Beijing to use as an opportunity of the Game to move towards a zero-waste policy. Although Beijing had launched many long term measures to improve the city’s air quality, they used temporary measures, for example reduced the vehicle numbers and industrial production were shut down. To make sure that during the Game the air quality meets the standards. Beijing could launched more clean measures to other cities, in order to improve the air quality and the air quality will meet the standards in long term.

Social Impact

Education (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009)

BOCOG focused its projects on raising awareness of the environment in both primary and secondary schools, thereby targeting the younger generation of Chinese.

The major educational initiatives include:

The Beijing 2008 Primary and Secondary School Olympic Education Programme This program was worked with the Ministry of Education, 0.4 billion students involved and the aim of this program is to establish the Olympic Model Schools (to teach, practice and promote the value of Olympic). This program encourages the students to live in an environmentally friendly way. 200 Beijing schools out of 556 were nominated as Olympic Model Schools.

The ‘Reserve a Barrel of Water this Summer’ Initiative This project carried out in the primary schools. The aim is to develop initiatives of water saving and to promote the importance of water saving.

Communication (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009)

BOCOG has developed several initiatives to spread the message of environmental values among the general public. Among the major projects, it is worth highlighting:

The Green Community and Green Home Campaign The aim of this project is to raise the environmental awareness among Beijing families and communities, for example to reduce the using the water and energy saving, waste sorting and green consumption. The Campaign launched in Beijing and 886 communities were involved by the end of 2006.

The ‘One Day, No Engine Sounds’ Campaign This project aim to encourage Beijing citizens to use public transport more than private cars, and to raise their awareness about the air and noise pollution. 504 institutions joined the Campaign after this has launched.

The Beijing Green Map Initiative The project was developed by BOCOG and the Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, encourages Beijing citizens to label the environmental and cultural facilities around the city.

The Green Olympics, Green Action Team

BOCOG was launched this team in 2004, and the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau to promote Olympic environmental values, sustainable development principles, good energy saving and water saving practices and environmental awareness in general. Lectures and promotion activities were hold by this team in different places, for example, in schools, factories, universities, libraries and communities

Olympic sponsorship maker Coca-Cola and Samsung are each given a commitment to the environment. The Coca-Cola Company has committed that natural refrigerant was used by all Olympic venues freezers and vending machines, excluding the climate change will increase greenhouse gases HFCs (HFCs). Samsung’s commitment that all Olympic series phones SGH-F268 phone will not contain toxic material polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominates flame retardants (BFR).


All the Olympics sponsors who using the refrigeration equipments such as Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, etc, failed to seize the opportunity not to use hydrogen fluorocarbons (HFCs) natural refrigeration equipment. Electronic equipment sponsors, such as Lenovo and Panasonic missed this opportunity, as they failed to provide products which contain without polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominates flame retardants (BFRs) and other toxic substances.


Beijing should continue the successful achievements on environment after the Olympic Games. Beijing had developed mass transportation and to implement the environmental policies and regulations are encouraging signs that the government understand the environment more. The Greenpeace urges that when the Chinese cities are devising economic development policies, they should consider environmental protection. As China is one of the fast growing economies country in the world and now China is facing serious environmental challenges, the environmental achievements of the Beijing Olympics, especially the long term infrastructural improvements, need to be spread to other cities in china.


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