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What Are The Benefits Of Eco Briquettes Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 2227 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Unsustainable of earth’s resources and environmental problems are major current problems that occurred by over consumption and inefficient way of using. Climate change, resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution has a major impact on many citizens and the earth which require people change their current behavior. Climate change and global warming are part of serious issues these days and are also part of the most important global environmental challenges, with implications for food production, water supply, health, energy and so on. Addressing climate change requires a good scientific understanding as well as coordinated action at national and global level from.

PTT 328

PTT is the largest energy company in Thailand which the group’s principal activity is the operation of petroleum business. The Group also engages in the exploration and production of petroleum, operation of natural gas, international trading of crude oil, condensate, petroleum and petrochemical products and investment in domestic refining and petrochemical industries. Its vision and mission are to be the preeminent Thai energy corporation, operating fully integrated oil and gas business, and total energy services. PTT has a clear goal over Quality, Safety, Health and Environment (QSHE). Regarded as the core component of sustainable development, QSHE has been analyzed and assessed with the needs of the stakeholders in mind. In conducting energy businesses, it is inevitable for operators to face risks concerning Quality, Safety, Health, and Environment (QSHE). Concerning this, PTT has constantly paid full attention to the control, prevention, and minimization of these risks faced by stakeholders; customers, suppliers, contractors, shareholders, communities, staff, and the environment as a whole. The company has applied productivity tools and QSHE management systems in all its units to improve its efficiency and the quality of life of staff and communities, and to steadily promote image in the company’s social and environmental responsibilities. These measures have successfully instilled greater confidence in investors and favored PTT’s international business undertaking. However, sustainable building of business also covers the product which its property and production process is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle. All of these elements have to concern of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Biomass briquette is an ideal biomass fuel which can enhance the PTT’s environmental performance more effective and visual because this the product including raw material, production process and new technologies are developed to create greener activities to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:

Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources

Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity

Recycling waste, reducing pollution and environmental degradation.

Biomass briquettes

Biomass briquettes are an affordable alternative fuel to coal and other solid combustible fuels which are produced by converting low bulk density biomass into high density solid fuels (Werther et al. 2000). Biomass briquetting plants are consisted of various types of machines to support different raw materials (Križan et al. 2009). Biomass briquettes are non-conventional source of energy, renewable in nature, eco friendly, non-polluting and economical (Wilaipon 2007). In addition, it has been claimed that…………….the process of converting biomass to solid fuel is also non-polluting; therefore the process and product are 100 % natural. Briquette is an ideal Bio-fuel because of the following reasons:

Eco friendly & renewable energy fuel.

Economical and cheaper than other solid fuels.

Thermal calorific value approximately 4000 Kcal/Kg.

Pollution free & non-hazardous.

Lower ash content 4% – 8%. There is no fly ash when burnt.

Consistent high burning efficiency.

Easy for transportation, feeding, and combustion.

Combustion is more uniform.

Biomass briquettes are an alternative green energy to coal, and are usually used to fire industrial boilers that produce steam including business which requires burn.

Production process 400

Every year Thailand has millions of tons of agricultural wastes are generated. These agricultural wastes are treated a waste with no economic value and either none used or burnt inefficiently in their loose form causing air pollution. However, this ‘waste’ can be turned into a completely environment-friendly source of energy through briquetting (Biomass briquettes Replacing coal and LPG.article).

Groundnut shell

Bamboo dust

Paddy straw

Sunflower stalk

Tea waste

Tobacco waste


(Sugarcane waste)

Saw dust

Coffee husk

Wheat straw


Jute waste

Forestry wastes

Cotton stalk

Palm husk

Wood chips

Rice husk


Soybeans husk

Other agro wastes

Table1. Sorts of raw material (based on Werther et al. 2000)

Biomass briquettes are manufactured by the process of recycling agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. The machinery used is compatible with multiple agricultural wastes. The agro waste is first pulverized, sieved and then dried to required moisture content. This is then fed into the hopper of fuel briquette machine, which uses high compression between die and punch resulting into cylindrical briquettes. Cylindrical briquettes are thus formed due to carbonization, achieved by heating of surface.

Figure1. The Biomass briquette’s production process (based on Callejón Ferre and López Martínez 2009)

Process of Briquetting:

Firstly, crushing machine prepares suitable size raw material for biomass briquetting plant by shredding the raw material after it is fed into the machine. After that a tiled metal screen will vibrate shredded remains until it separates from soil. Then, the remains plant materials were passed into a tank of continuous washing consists of a pivot drum made of screen. After washing the plant material, water is contaminated and low quality, it is brought to purify by water-purification system which is contained in the lowest of the tank. This system allows reused water for briquetting process. Secondly, drying machine prepare suitable moisture raw material for biomass briquette press. For briquetting press, it is only to control the moisture of raw material at a reasonable range that can make good result of biomass briquettes. Or the briquettes will be broken because of too loose or too dry. Thirdly, briquetting press machine makes the biomass material into briquettes. After the well preparation of raw metarial, briquetting is easy at right operation of biomass briquette press. When machine rise to over 300 centigrade, the material can be feeding continuously into briquetting press. First, the color of briquettes may be a little dark even black, but after a while, the color will be light to normal level coming out of biomass briquette machine. Finally, packing is the last process of briquetting process which the packing machine will load final biomass briquettes and then wrap with a thermal shrink wrap by thermal shrink wrapping machine

Finished Product Briquettes

Briquettes are ready substitute of lignite, coal and wood in industrial boiler and brick kiln for thermal application including households’ daily life. Biomass briquettes are non-conventional source of energy, eco-friendly, renewable in nature, non polluting and economical. It’s made through binder less technique without use of any type of chemical so it is 100% natural. Compared to fire wood or loose biomass, briquettes give much higher boiler efficiency because of low moisture and higher density.

Marketing 200 Explain how it could be marketed (academic resources)

According to (Suksumek 2007) pollution problem by using lignite at Mae Moh Power plant in Thailand in 1992 and causing bad effect to villagers, power plant employees and crop of local communities, it creates negative image of using lignite and coal which Thai government solves the problem by import coal from oversea. Therefore, it is a good opportunity to market biomass briquette product in Thailand. The manufacturing, located in Thailand, provides a geographical advantage to Tesco because it is populated……………………… Moreover, demand consumption of coal is high while low competition in clean fuel product as biomass briquette.

Unit: Ktoe

Table1. Forecast on Primary Energy Demand (based on Suksumek 2007)

The multiple usage of the end product enables us to exploit the opportunities in both

commercial and industrial markets. Our plant will cater to the SA and UK industrial and domestic commercial market such as steel manufacturing plants or electrical plants.There are plenty of potential markets for fuel briquettes in the cities and in the rural areas.

The potential customers for the briquettes:

Refractory Industries

Gasifies System App

Lamination Industries

Spinning Mill

Leather Industries

Ceramic Industries

Textile units

Vegetable Plants

Solvent Extraction


Rubber Industries

Food Processing


Dyeing Units

Milk Plant

Any Industrial

Thermal App

Brick Making Units

Chemical Industries

Marketing Approaches

Sponsorship: The plan recommends motivating customer’s perception and also improves customer relationships in term of green company and green product by integrating green initiatives into every aspect of the organization which links the association of the company and briquette product with an individual, event or organization to display in social responsibility.

Using eco-labels and eco-logos on products or marketing materials: The plan aims to emphasize in term of green product by putting eco-label and eco-logos on briquette’s packaging to increase customer’s awareness.

Engaging customers in green marketing: The marketing plan will motivate consumers by encouraging them to participate and engage in the campaign or directly with the product through green clubcard.

E-marketing: In term of viral marketing, the plan will target online resources like Tesco’s website chatroom, article media, emails online events and will sell the product through Tesco’s own website.

Personal Selling: Due to briquette is low-value product and it is required to use in many industries; therefore face-to-face contact provides better opportunity to sell briquette for large quantity to industries.


45% of the product is exported to the UK retaining 55% of it for the Thailand market.

Distribution in Thailand will be done directly to clients upon placing an order or known as Just-In-Time because the briquette product’s lead time is short. Moreover, it is available in every branches of Tesco store in Thailand while it is available in Tesco extra in UK. However, there is some amount of product storaged in warehouse to support an emergency.



Due to property of product and distance of transportation, the biomass briquette product would require strong and waterproof packaging. For this reasons, Thermal Shrink wrapping which is inexpensive and environmentally friendly is used as packaging of product. This elastic plastic wrap can also used to protect product when it is not in use. Moreover, it can be used for big and small items; therefore it provides an advantage to product and company for future development. In this process, briquettes are fed into the packing machine, heat is used to condense the sheets of packing material to mold, or shrink to the form of the content it will protect.


Briquettes have high specific density; therefore it can withstand the stocks of long distance transport, loading and unloading. Furthermore, transportation costs are much less and storage requirement is drastically reduced. For delivery both in case of shipment and transportation, this plan concerns about climate change and environment friendly, and purposes to improve carbon footprint. The product will be delivered with sharing lorry by working in partnership with other companies and suppliers in domestic and international.  For our own transportation, we will use more and more double-decker trailers, which carry 55 percent more products per journey (single deck: 45, double deck: 75 cages per trip). In addition, battery-powered vans are making deliveries for our online store, Tesco.com which will save around 180 tonnes of CO2 each year. From these effective deliveries, Tesco can reduce CO2 emission, save cost and gain higher profit.

Conclusion 150


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