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Autonomous Vehicle Parking Using Finite State Automata Information Technology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 3675 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Our project is based on the autonomous parking using finite state automata. The invention of the autonomous parking system in which the elevator, lifter and computer are connected in group such that each unit swap information as it require and then the system calculating processes of loading and unloading a car, issuing the parking ticket and then identifying the parking ticket. The parking system include a elevator , lifter, computer, database for storing vehicle number data and information data which only display that how many car are parking in different floors and then elevator load car , park in vacant floor and unloaded the car one by one and. The process of elevator is to pick and lift the car from ground to parking area and then back to it owns position.

The present invention narrates to a system of controlling a autonomous parking system and calculating a parking fee and more principally to a parking control system to which a computer, a control unit, a parking ticket issuer, and a parking ticket recognizer are connected through a network for allowing any required information to be used among them.

Description of the Prior Art

Generally in a conventional autonomous parking system, a car is moved to a respective floor along hoist way with use of a lift, and then parked in respective parking space with use of pallets. In that system, a fee calculator and a parking ticket issuer are separately operated such that each operation of a parking machine, a parking ticket issuer, and the fee calculator is performed separately.

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The parking of vehicles in the employment center of larger cities of the world has increasingly become a major problem. Not only is there insufficient available land for surface parking but the high cost of the land makes such a use economically infeasible. In addition, the aggregation of a large amount of vehicles causes traffic, environmental, aesthetic, and pollution problems. The solution to locate parking facilities in more remote areas where land cost are lower is also not feasible because of inconvenient distances to areas of employment and potential safety and security problem

To construct large underground parking facility in these congested center city areas also create major problem because of the high cost of the instruction the multitude of underground utility encountered and the inevitable distribution to existing services during the construction period

This complex situation indicates that the use of small low volume underground parking facility with the capability of the fitting within the existing infra structure would be highly desirable. Not only would be they be able to be located conveniently to the driver’s destination but they also have potential to maintain the surface above the parking facility in a park

Other generators that demand more convenient, close or adjacent parking solution include office buildings, apartments, hotels and institutions where surface parking would not meet the requirements by reason of restricted land area, high land costs, inconvenient access, security, and environmental factors.

In response to these needs for alternative and convenient parking, the engineering group endeavored to engineer a solution. They had previously solved couples design challenges in the construction industry by utilizing an approach that included standardization and “variety reduction” in order to reduce construction costs and time and to provide greater consumer benefit.

Their solution was autonomous parking system, a modular automated parking system that could be installed below or above ground, alone or in repeat modules. This approach provided the advantages of minimizing inconvenience, expediting construction time, and lowering construction cost. Its compact area permitted it to be built in center city areas, while avoiding the problems of interference with dense underground utilities and major disruptions to these services.


Autonomous parking is an autonomous car planning from a line of traffic into a parking place to perform parallel parking. The autonomous parking intends to develop the ease and safety of driving in controlled situations where much attention and knowledge is required to steer the vehicle. The parking scheme is achieved by means of synchronized control of the steering angle and speed which takes into account the actual circumstance in the environment to make sure collision-free motion within the available space.


The automated vehicle parking system for a parking facility that be in handle with a vehicle approaching or leaving the facility with RF signals, or the like, that identify the vehicle and sends the vehicle identification number, time of day, and lane number to a central computer for calculating the parking cost based on rates for each individual vehicle stored in the computer. [7]


THE AUTONOMOUS PARKING SYSTEM – As an automobile manufacturer, DaimlerChrysler is continuously developing new systems in order to improve vehicle safety, quality, and comfort. Within this context, prototypical vehicle systems are developed, which support autonomous vehicle parking – a function that might be introduced to the market in some years time. The autonomous parking systems regarded in this paper are intended to automate parking lengthways into a parking space, like shown in Fig.1. For this purpose, the vehicle is equipped with environmental sensors, which register objects surrounding the vehicle. On passing along, the system can recognize sufficiently large parking spaces and can signal to the driver that a parking space has been found. If the driver decides to park in the vehicle can do this automatically.

Fig 1: Functionality of Autonomous Parking System———– [1]

In Fig.2 the system environment for the autonomous parking system is shown. The inputs are sensor data, which contain information on the state of the vehicle, e.g. vehicle speed or steering position, and information from the environmental sensors, which register objects on the left and right hand side of the vehicle. For output the system possesses an interface to the vehicle actors, where the vehicle’s velocity and steering angle will be set. The internal structure of the autonomous parking

Fig 2: System Environment————- [2]

The parking space detection processes the data from the environmental sensor systems and delivers the recognized geometry of a parking space if it has been detected to be sufficiently large. The parking controller component uses the geometry data of the parking space together with the data from the vehicle sensors to steer the vehicle through the parking procedure. For this purpose, velocity and steering angle are set for the vehicle actors.

Fig 3: Subcomponents of Autonomous Parking System——— [3]

Some proposals for solving of parking problems

A good decision is to be built automated parking systems for cars preferably served by stacker cranes (see fig 4), that are the basic element of the automated warehouse structures.

Fig 4: ———– [4]

Brief Description about FINITE STATE AUTOMATA

Finite-State Automata

A finite-state transducer whose output components are ignored is called a finite-state automaton. Formally, a finite-state automaton M is a tuple , where Q, , q0, and F are defined as for finite-state transducers, and the transition table  is a relation from Q Ã- (  {}) to Q.

Kinds of Finite State Automata

1. DFA

2. NFA

What is NFA?

In the theory of computation, nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) is a finite state machine where for each pair of state and input symbol there may be several possible next states. This distinguishes it from the deterministic finite automaton (DFA), where the next possible state is uniquely determined. Although the DFA and NFA have distinct definitions, it may be shown in the formal theory that they are equivalent, in that, for any given NFA, one may construct an equivalent DFA, and vice-versa: this is the power set construction. Both types of automata recognize only regular languages. Non-deterministic finite state machines are sometimes studied by the name sub shifts of finite type. Non-deterministic finite state machines are generalized by probabilistic automata, which assign a probability to each state transition.

Formal Definition

Two similar types of NFAs are commonly defined: the NFA and the NFA with ε-moves. The ordinary NFA is defined as a 5-tuple, (Q, Σ, T, q0, F), consisting of

a finite set of states Q

a finite set of input symbols Î£

a transition function T : Q Ã- Σ → P(Q).

an initial (or start) state q0 âˆˆ Q

a set of states F distinguished as accepting (or final) states F âŠ† Q.

What is DFA?

In the theory of computation, a deterministic finite state machine-also known as deterministic finite state automaton (DFSA) is a finite state machine where for each pair of state and input symbol there is one and only one transition to a next state, as opposed to a nondeterministic finite-state machine, which has the possibility of multiple transitions . DFAs recognize the set of regular languages and no other languages.

A DFA will take in a string of input symbols. For each input symbol it will then transition to a state given by following a transition function. When the last input symbol has been received it will either accept or reject the string depending on whether the DFA is in an accepting state or a non-accepting state.

Formal Definition

A DFA is a 5-tuple, (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F), consisting of

a finite set of states (Q)

a finite set of input symbols called the alphabet (Σ)

a transition function (δ : Q Ã- Σ → Q)

a start state (q0 âˆˆ Q)

a set of accept states (F âŠ† Q)

Finite State Machine of Autonomous Vehicle parking

Language (L) = {pick car, first floor, second floor, third floor, go to, back, ground, elevator}

Third Floor

Second Floor

First Floor



stand Back into position


Pick Car back goto goto



back goto


Fig 5 Finite State Machine of Autonomous Vehicle parking


Finite State Machine of Autonomous Vehicle parking

Let assigned digit code to each statement in above machine.






0 0


0 1

1 1


0 1


Tabular Form

S x I














































DFA Machine


0 1 0

1 0



1 1 0 0



1 0 1







Language= {0,1}


S= (a, 0) = a S= (a, 1) = b

S= (b, 0) = a S= (b, 1) = cde

S=(c, 0) = a S=(c, 1) = d

S= (d, 0) = c S= (d, 1) = e

S= (e, 0) = d S= (e, 1) =error

Autonomous Parking Solutions

Autonomous parking solutions are capable to way store huge number of vehicles within sufficient space.


How Autonomous Parking System works


The procedure of autonomous parking solution begins as soon as elevator come to pick the car, the door I s then closed and after that stored into vacant parking space and automatically return to entry box when we press the button.


Maximizing the use of space for parking


Besides the ease of parking for the user, maximum parking capacity is guaranteed because there are no slopes of carriageways with the autonomous parker.


Reasons why Autonomous Parking System is the ideal solution


There are several reason why autonomous park is the ideal solution because whenever and wherever the huge number of vehicle park need to be park over the available space, e.g. optimum access times, comfortable operation, protection against theft, robbery, burglary and harm, low maintenance requirements, and last but not least, high adaptability to the individual garage planning project with respect to the options regarding maximum possible car heights. [6]

Automated Parking General Descriptions

Below is a list of terms and definitions to better assist you in understanding the nomenclature in the FATA Sky parks automated parking systems.

Entry section – The point where the driver parks their vehicle.

Exit section – The point where the driver retrieves their vehicle and where the APS will transport the vehicle when the request is made.

Joint Entry and Exit – The vehicle is dropped off and picked up at the same section. This option requires extra space allow for a turntable to turn the vehicle around.

Turntable – Speeds up the retrieval time by simplifying the exit system in combination sections. The vehicle is turned 180 degrees and is ready to be driven forward out of the

Combined Entry/Exit module, rather than being backed out.

Robot Shuttle – The mechanical part of the system that picks up the parked vehicle in the entry/exit or combo section and moves the vehicles horizontally along the primary walkway to a vertical lift or available parking space. Multiple robots can be used.

Dedicated Robots – Robot shuttles that are dedicated to each parking floor. benefit – once the vehicle is put down on a vertical lift the robot can retrieve another call on that level. The dedicated choice is generally a faster system.

Roaming Robots – Robot shuttles that travel through the system with the vehicles on them by riding up on a end-of-aisle lift. Benefit – less robots are used, but release times are compact.

Autonomous – The robots move separately from each other. Advantage – if a robot requires service the efficiency of the system is only modestly affected.

Off-Corridor Vertical Lift – The portion of the system that moves the vehicles vertically from the entry level to an above/below ground-parking floor. Used in conjunction with dedicated robot shuttles and only transfers the vehicle to alternate floors. Typically used on systems that have a robot aisle greater than 75-100′ in length to increase delivery speeds.

End-of-aisle Vertical Lift – The section of the system that moves the vehicles vertically from the entry level to an above/below ground-parking floor. Used in combination with

Roaming robot transports and lifts the robot carry and vehicle to alternate floors. Typically used for systems with a robot aisle less than 100′ in length.

Layout – The organization of the parking structure including the demonstration of parked vehicles off of the robot aisle.

Conventional parking – pass on to the typical concrete parking structures with vehicle slope access to multiple floors. Non-Automated

Queuing Time – Queuing time refers to the time necessary the system is busy before another vehicle is allowed to enter the system. Queuing time is dependent relative on the entry and exit time of the driver (length of time to depart or enter the parked car) and the amount of automated lifts, robots, and entry / exit modules utilized.

Attendant Requirements – No attendant is required, however, an attendant is useful in assisting drivers to negotiate the system. If the parking lot is open to the public and not strictly the building tenants, an attendant is recommended.

Benefit of parking Guidance System/Autonomous Parking System

The obvious benefit of automated parking systems is the ability to fit more cars in less space which can solve many parking problems, but there are many other benefits to the developer, operator, consumer and society in general.  For example, consider the countless acres of open space consumed by parking lots and all the storm water runoff generated by that entire impervious surface.  Self park ramp garages are more efficient, but still take twice the space as an automated parking facility.   By contrast, automated parking garages are a green solution since they preserve open space, have low energy consumption and have no carbon emissions, because vehicles are shut off before being parked in the system.

General benefits

Decrease in time spent for searching parking. The efficiency and accessibility benefits from reduced searching can also cause good result in some lessening in accidents due to reduced driver frustration

Reduced pollution. Changes in pollutant emissions due to Parking Guidance information are most closely related to changes in overall travel time, for example, yearly pollutant release are reported to have been reduced due to a PGI system in Munich, Germany.

Reduction in traffic jams due to fewer cars driving around for spaces searching. 

Elimination of stand in line entering parking facilities because drivers will not go to a facility where there is no available space. 

Reduction in unlawfully parked vehicles. 

Better distribution of flow and parking demand through the area.

Autonomous parking systems result in higher revenues and profitability for the parking facilities. 

Operator Benefits

 – Reduced labor

 – Reduced liability

 – Reduced lighting & HVAC 

 – Total control over access & enforcement

Consumer & Social Benefits

 – Eliminate fender benders

 – Eliminate theft and vandalism

 – Reduce carbon emissions

 – Preserve open space

Highlights of autonomous parking

The main highlights of the automated parking systems served by stacker crane in comparison with other systems are:

optimum use of the available space,

minimum room of a parking automobile,

no need of platforms and staircases,

module principle of building, that meets the requirements of the clients,

shortening the time needed for building a parking system,

Less time for parking and forwarding because of the high traveling speed of the stacker crane and simultaneously vertical and horizontal movement and so on.

Examples of Autonomous Parking System

Features of Hoboken, New Jersey

Benefits of the autonomous parking system include: optimization of space utilization, security, convenience, lower garage owner’s liability insurance, greater reduction schedule, lower lighting and ventilation requirements (no cars driving around inside; no people go inside), and lower emissions and less pollution (clean parking system).

Car Towers at the Autostadt: A Hive for Beetles

Fig— [5]


The Car Towers is a 20-story tall car storage space tower in Wolfsburg, Germany. It’s owned & operated by Volkswagen, which enlighten why all the cars around 800 at full capacity are VWs. The Car Towers has often been used to demonstrate public parking garages of the future even though it’s a private endeavor that merely allows VW to save space.

Dubai Robotic Car park

Fig —- [8]


The robotic car park in Deira, Dubai (above) doesn’t have the enough storage space of the Car Towers (14 cars instead of 800) but it is practical, workable and open for business. A 67-car capacity robot car park in New York’s Chinatown works on the same principal.


The future belongs to the automated parking – garages and the efforts made in this direction account for the investments.

Automated parking garages are better decision from the social point of view. For example the owners of cars who park their cars in parking – automat are forced to pay higher parking charges.

This is extremely important in order to shorten the time for servicing a single cell for parking, which is a basic criteria in building automated parking systems for cars.


The primary purpose of this autonomous parking study was to determine short-term and long-term recommendations to improve parking in cities. The parking study initially evaluated existing conditions, determined primarily through reviews of background materials (including previous parking studies), . The examination of existing conditions provided the baseline data from which future development, with its impact on parking supply and demand, could be evaluated. Finally, parking alternatives were considered to address future needs, as well as improve the utilization and efficiency of existing parking resources. Future parking alternatives included potential parking supply changes, as well as general parking management strategies.


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