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The 4g Wireless Networks

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 1834 words Published: 16th May 2017

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The current system has very limited services; 4G is going to be The Technology which is going to be highly in demand. With the developing of 4G this power can be utilized to its fullest potential for various people in different walks of life. This is will help the military services of any nation to a great extent as the video clarity and data transfer speed will help the uniformed men in the war front. Likewise for the corporate this is a boon as they can have virtual offices all over the world and monitor their business by sitting in one corner of the world. And even for the personal use it is of great help to the people as it has the better quality of service, connectivity and also helps the people in all the fields. This fourth generation helps us to gather all kinds of information which is needed without any difficulty. This 4G has lots more benefits when compared to the 3G and it also provides better service to the people in a high level.

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The wireless technologies evolution has many generations such as 1G, 2G which is of wireless cellular system. The wireless systems which are currently in use provide only limited services. The users of 2G and 2.5G are asking for better quality in data, multimedia and voice similar to the quality of the wired. But the data rate required for it is very high, which is also beyond the 3G capabilities. This motivated in the research of the Fourth Generation wireless network s (4G). The 4G vision unifies many mobile and the wireless networks. Anyway, there is a basic difference to the wireless cellular and the WLANs.

The wireless networks in the fourth generation will have different networks and it will overlie one with the other. The mobile station which has multiple interfaces will be fully equipped which will enhance its mobility. The 4G wireless networks will have different kinds of wireless components which will provide large number of service to the users, so that the people can communicate with the help of these networks and architecture.

The 4G wireless networks are very flexible and will provide wide range of technology to the users. They will not only be able to use the internet services but also will be able to use the other services like voice and some other day-to-day applications. They not only help in improving the services but also help us to obtain wide range of information and services.


The 4G is a safe and secure platform and many services can be made use of it. It gives the complete satisfaction to the users.

Low Handoff:

This handoff will cause the delay in the services and it will also create loss to the communication of the data. Hence this should be managed for the better communication.


The access is the important thing in the 4G networks as it gives connectivity to the users and it also provides the end services.


The network should be of multi-service so that it will not only give the basic access but also gives a wide range of services to the people who will need voice and other services.


The 4G network integrates using the high end platform and it is also cheaper and effective to use, and it can be maintained easily.

Security service: For success of 4G, the important aspect is security and to make sure that the networks are safe and protected.


The 4G has different range of models and it can be made use as required.

Optimal networks:

In this, according to the agreement the optimal network for the service is selected and the connectivity is selected based on the internet network layer.

Hybrid networks:

The core layers will be present and the layers will have networks of different kinds which will be presented layer below layer.

Heterogeneous networks:

This deals with different and all kinds of networks which has one common network. When the core layer is the same it minimizes the overheads and will also improve in the performance of the network.

The fourth generation wireless network comprises 4 basic layers. They are Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).

WPAN Networks

WLAN Networks

WMAN Networks

WWAN Networks

The networks of the lower levels has high bandwidth and play a small area of networking and sometimes the networks of the lower level can play the role of the networks in the higher level.

The WPAN has the shortest network connectivity. It has connection only to the personal needs like; the Bluetooth can be used with it. It covers only a relatively short distance.

The WLAN also covers a short area, but more than the WPAN. It covers the local area. For e.g. the use of internet in an area.

The WMAN covers more than the WLAN. It provides communication between a metropolitan area.

The WWAN is the wide area but it does not have a very high bandwidth. The use of cellular, GSM can be accessed with this network.

Wireless Fourth Generation Architecture:

Inter Technology Hybrid Unit (HU):

This hybrid unit acts as a bridge between the different layers. It combines many networks to access different technologies. The hybrid units are of different types, they are:

WWAN-WMAN: This node provides a link between the WWAN and the WMAN network. For the WWAN it can act as the base station and for the WMAN it acts as a subscriber station.

WMAN-WLAN: For the WLAN this unit acts as an access point, and for WMAN, it is the subscriber station.

WLAN-WPAN: The networks WLAN and WPAN will be interconnected using this unit. It can operate the Bluetooth the ad-hoc networks.

The main components of the cellular networks are the Mobile Switching Center (MSC), Home location Register (HLR), Serving GRPS Support Mode (SGSN).

Properties of 4G:

Network Architecture: It has Hybrid network architecture.

Driving Architecture: It has converged data and voice over IP.

Switching: It has digitalized switching with packetized voice.

Radio Access: MC-CDMA, OFDMA.

Database: ELHR, VLR, EIR, AuC.

Data rates: It has data rates of 100Mbpsc.

Roaming: It has global roaming.

Compatible: It is compatible to 3G.

Handsets: Numerous mode voice, data streamed video with higher data rates.

Applications: Internet, MMS, Multimedia, HDTV M TV

Bandwidth: It has bandwidth of 100MHz

Frequency Band: It has higher frequency bands of 2-8 MHz

Component Design: It has smaller antennas, software multiband and wideband radios.

FEC Tech: It has concatenated coding scheme.

IP: All IP (IP6.0)

As the wireless communication system develops the expectations and the demand among the people keeps increasing. These wireless networks work on their capacity and limits also has some crucial period.

The re-configurability can be done at any level, and it will be useful for the network provider as well as the user perspective. This provides selection between the alternate networks and is based upon all the issues.

The re-configurability mechanism tells not only about the physical layer but also the stacks of the entire protocol. These 4G systems will provide many features to the users and it will provide end-to-end connectivity. The accessing, roaming and the other dynamic features are very useful and everything is obtained at a minimal cost. They can also choose between the other wireless networks if required.

The following figure shows about the interoperability of the 4G layers.

The 4G networks usually support the global roaming and the end-to-end services in the wireless networks, and these thing usually depend upon the Quality of Service issues (QoS). The capacity and the bandwidth for the 4G should be many times more than that of the 3G to meet the business requirements. The 4G depends not only upon the speed and version but entirely for its service and the quality.

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The main difference between the 4G and the previous generations is that in 4G both the voice and data can be sent, but in the other generations the voice and only a small amount of data can be sent across. The 4G can be used wireless with the Digital Subscriber line (DSL). The people throughout the world would be benefited and can use for communication, as its service and quality are very good. They can even do business from one part of the world to the other as it has good speed and is reliable. The people who have not yet used the 3G can directly hop on the 4G as it is more useful and of good speed. It will be based on the network IP technology. 4G is more useful than Wi-Fi. In Wi-Fi the distance matters and it can be accessed only in the slow path. But this 4G is faster and it can be accessed from any place and it is also cost-effective.

Quality of Service:

The quality of service plays a very challenging role in the 4G networks. It provide a wide range of service and a better quality to the users. There are 4 types of quality of service, they are:

1. Packet- level Quality of service:

This QoS refers to the packet level service which also takes care of the error rate, and the space occupied by the buffer. It has a good packet quality which is very helpful to the users.

2. Transaction level Quality of Service:

This transaction level depends on the transaction time it takes to complete a service and also about the packet loss. Some of networks can accept the packet loss but the others cannot.

3. Circuit level Quality of Service:

The circuit level service is about the calls which have been connected and also about the circuit level transfer and other transactions. It provides a good quality of service for the calls and services.

4. User-level Quality of Service:

The user level quality depends upon the application and the other services. It also depends upon the mobility of the users which may support the quality of the network.


4 G is developed with the following aspects and advantages:

It’s speed would be 50 times high than 3G. The expected bandwidth of 4G is about 10Mbps.

It has options of three-dimensional virtual reality, video and the ability to feel at the event even if you are not present physically there.

We get to interact with people, products and know about the places when the cyber and real world merge.

The smart card in your mobile would advice you to do what next as it will be monitoring your movements.

Last but not the least 4G will provide access and support for authentication, paying off bills, security and also supports whichever has mobile specific services.


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