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Invention Of Mass Media Media Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Media
Wordcount: 2238 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Since the invention of mass media, mass media has always view as a big influence to the society and threat for certain group of people. This can be trace back to the 18th century, when the first theory about media- mass media theory was created and talks about how strong media is in directly influence people perception and action. Over the years, there are lots of mass media theories that talk about the power of media and how media is use to manipulate and influence people especially the folk culture or so call ordinary people.

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When talk about mass media theory, a big point that shouldn’t be misses out is the rise of media theory in the age of propaganda. Propagandists rely on mass media very much as media reached mass audience. It is the best way for propagandist to change people action according to their own belief and expectation. One of the successful propaganda that has been widely practice was Nazis propaganda during world war one in 1933 to 1939. There are also others famous mass media theory like magic bullet theory, behaviorism, Freudianism and a lot more.

Most of the time media often view as a negative influence especially for the elite group, and they claim that media should be control. There are also some theories that talk about the positive of mass media theory. For example, libertarianism theory says that people are good and rational. So media should have 100% freedom to report on everything and people can able to judge and differentiate what is right and wrong by themselves.

Although there are a lots of theory argue about the pros and cons of mass media. However, one thing that everyone cannot denial is that mass media are one of the important things in human history especially the digital era like nowadays. The invention of mass media has brought human life to the whole new era and it has become an essential in human life. It helps human to convenient the process of communication between each other and also government nowadays to spread news and new policy to the people.

According to Wang Lay Kim (2001), the first media in Malaysia was the English language Government Gazette call as the Prince of Whales Island Gazette (PWIG) in 1st of March 1806 in Penang Island. The last publication was on 21st of July 1827 total duration of 21 years. The first TV station in Malaysia are RTM1 and RTM 2 and then follow by the first privatization TV station which is TV3 in 1984.

As mass media act as an important agent between a country and its people or government with the people, there is no exception for Malaysia to use mass media as the change agent for government policies. The mainstream media in Malaysia has always been perceived as an important agent of change for most of the government’s policies. The mainstream media include TV stations, radio stations and also newspapers. As a developing country, Malaysia’s 4th prime minister Tun Dr.Mahathir Bin Mohammad have come out with the policy of vision 2020 which aim to further develop Malaysia into a fully develop country in the year 2020. In the year 2010, Malaysia’s current prime minister Dato’ Sri Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak introduced the concept of one Malaysia which mainly focus on unite multi races of Malaysian to view themselves as Malaysian without looking at skin, races and language. It is also focus on economic of Malaysia and development of Malaysia to help Malaysia to achieve the goal of vision 2020.

Since the introduction of 1 Malaysia concept, this concept has been widely promote by the government to the citizen using the mainstream media. As the government realizes that people’s reliability towards media is getting more nowadays, people receive most of their information through different type of media. So media is view as the most suitable way to promote the new 1 Malaysia concept. The messages that promote through mass media are not as simple as audience view. Those ideas and concepts have been carefully defined and structure before reach the target audience. Government has used several type of mass media theory to promote the concept of 1 Malaysia. With the help of the theory, it encourages Malaysian to accept the concept of 1 Malaysia mentally and physically.

Political economy theory

Political economy theory is mainly focus on the study of how the elite control the economics of a country based on the link between politics and base to maintain the hegemonic culture.

In this context, the elite will be the government of Malaysia. Political economy theory also says that to understand the media, one’s must look at the whole picture which includes the ownership of media and the control group of media. In Malaysia, although most of the mainstream media are privatization but all the media are closely related to the government and political party. For example, according to Wang Lay Kim (2001), Fleet holding, a company that arm by UMNO which have 80% share of the News straits Times Press (NSTP) and majority share in Utusan Melayu Press sin year 1973. Both of these presses have majority readership and circulation in Malaysia’s newspaper.Fleet holding also have the share of 40% in Malaysia TV station, TV3. Besides, the other Malaysia main English paper, 58% of theStar newspaper is also own by Huaren holding Sdn.Bhd which link to MCA, one of the political party under the government.

Cleary, we can see that there is a tight relationship between mainstream media with the political parties. With this point, it is not hard for the government to promote the idea of 1 Malaysia and gain acceptance by the people. The messages first come out by the elite or government through allocative control. Then the media under government in charge of the operational control which manipulate the word and idea before promote to the public to achieve the goal. It is not a surprise that thestar newspaper report atleast one article about the 1 Malaysia concepts per week. For example, 13 September 2012 thestar report about “another 1 Malaysia clinic open”. 15 September 2012 is about “175 1 Malaysia clinics by year end”.16 September 2012, “A truly 1 Malaysia day for both side of S.china sea”. 19 September 2012, “PM launches books of 1 Malaysia”. 29 September 2012, “Lots of goodies under 1 Malaysia schemes”.

As we know that, newspaper has always acted as a medium for people to receive information and people tend to believe newspaper as it is more accurate and professional. Government take control on the production of media by reporting the positive news about the 1 Malaysia concepts can surely gain support from the citizen.


Hegemony talks about elite stay their status quo through coercion and consent. Besides, it also states that force cannot maintain the power of the elite. Persuasion, explanation and understanding make people act willing and happily towards order. The best way for government to spread consent was using the mass media, especially the mainstream media that closely related to the government. Through hegemony and media, media act as a way to educate people how to behave and what to do in their life that consistent with the government goal.

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We can see how hegemony is use by government to promote the concept of 1 Malaysia in mainstream media like TV and newspaper in Malaysia. First of all, the slogan itself for 1 Malaysia concept “Rakyat didahulukan, pencapaian diutamankan” in English it means people first, performance now”. This is obviously telling people that the government care about the citizen and the future of the country through the promotion of mainstream media every day. In order to achieve the part of consent that stated in hegemony, one of the main focuses of 1 Malaysia concept is to help Malaysia to achieve the goal of vision 2020 which is a fully develop country.

Since the introduce of 1 Malaysia concept, Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is introduce by the current prime minister to improve the effectiveness of Malaysian government department for satisfaction of the citizen towards the service and try to shape the positive image of citizen towards the government. Under KPI, a mechanism is provided to evaluate the effectiveness of government agency towards crime prevention, reducing government corruption, increased to quality education, improvement of public transportation, improve the living of low income citizen and rural are infrastructure. Since the election of 2008, electors have lost confident on the government which means Barisan Nasional. It is very important for government to fulfill the need and satisfaction of the citizen which is the part of consent in hegemony. The result of KPI is keep highlight by the mainstream media. In long term effect, people will start to believe that the government did do some changes on the transparency of politic. These help the government to gain confident of the citizen. Besides, mainstream media often cover other news about 1 Malaysia. For example, thestar report an article about the new open 1 Malaysia clinic and grocery shop. This is also a long term effect of persuasion to told the citizen about 1 Malaysia concept are always for the benefit of the citizen, in the other hand, it also means that everyone should support the concept as it only bring benefit to the public. Moreover, the song and slogan of 1 Malaysia are often playing in TV station and radio station. It acts to reinforce people about 1 Malaysia concept are always for the public. Just like the lyrics of 1 Malaysia song. “I’m 4 U”.

The use of coercion in hegemony which is law state to control over the content of media towards government report like the printing press and publication act, broadcasting act and official secret act. Combine with the use of consent like ownership of media and control over the content of media. Surely the government can maintain their status quo and spread their ideology to the citizen without the consciousness of the people. People will also accept the concept willing without any force.

Marxist Theory

Marxist theory talks about that hierarchical class system are the roots of social problem. How base, superstructure and capitalism are closely related to each other. The main premises of Marxism said if the idea of production can be control, people can be control. The ideology of the elite are widely use to dominant public thinking and to maintain the inequality of social class.

In human history, social class problem have been discuss generation over generation. However, the inequalities between social classes are still appearing in today’s world. For example, riots happened in Malaysia on 13 May 1969 was happen due to the imbalance of economy and social classes between races. It makes Malaysia government realize about the important of economy balance between races. Although the large economy gaps between races in Malaysia are solve through New Economic Policy (NEP), but the problem of social classes are still remain.

The government member and royal family of Malaysia are defining as the elite group or aristocrat in Marxist theory. In order for the government to maintain their status quo, the elite own the capitalism with their base. However, for their ideology to spread and accept by people, media are use as a tool by government. According to Wang Lay Kim (2001), Malaysia’s second privatize TV station Metrovision, the four share holder company was closely related to UMNO. The companies are City television Sdn.Bhd, Melewar Corporation, Utusan Melayu and Medanmas Sdn. Bhd.

This can explain how government act as capitalism, own the base which are the media and message production and spread of 1 Malaysia concept which is government ideology to maintain their status quo. In literal, 1Malaysia concept is use to help Malaysian to improve their living condition and upgrade the overall citizen social classes to eliminate poverty. But in the other hand, it is also an ideology to maintain their power. Government realize that to maintain their status quo while achieve peaceful among the bourgeoisie and proletariat or so call Malaysian, 1 Malaysia concept are one of the best way to achieve goal for mutual benefit of the country and the elite. By own the mainstream media and control of the message production, people can be control.


In conclusion, with the support of political economy, hegemony theory and Marxist theory, I strongly agree that 1 Malaysia concept can be accept by Malaysian with the use of mainstream media. Most of the media theories agree that media have the long term effect on people but not direct effect. When people expose to something for a long term, they tend to believe it. Mainstream media keep reporting the positive news of 1 Malaysian; time by time people will accept it without conscious about it. Besides, mainstream media in Malaysia are directly control by legislative law and indirectly own by the government. With the support of Marxist theory, which says control of the media production, people can be control. It strengthens my opinion towards Malaysian acceptance of 1 Malaysia concept.


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