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Diet and Nutrition Case Study

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Nutrition
Wordcount: 3279 words Published: 27th Nov 2017

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  • Warda Abdulkadir Ahmed

Diet and Digestion

TAQ 1)


Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


2 Whole grain waffles (35 grams each) 2 tablespoons of peanut butter

1 sliced banana

500ml water

Porridge Oats (45 grams) with 300ml of semi skimmed milk

1 Orange

500ml of water/fruit squash

2 slices of wholegrain bread/toast with peanut butter spread

1 yoghurt drink

1 sliced banana

500ml water/fruit squash


1 Vanilla yoghurt

Dried apricot (20 grams)

1 fruit scone

With low fat margarine spread

1 slice of fruit malt loaf


2 slices of vegetable pizza

Tossed salad

1 diced melon

500ml water

Lamb steak (150 grams) with watercress salad

1 baked potato

500 ml water/fruit squash

Durum wheat pasta (100 grams)

cottage cheese (20 grams)

Small bunch of grapes


Peanuts (20 grams)

Raisins (20 grams)

1 slice of gingerbread

Carrot sticks and hummus dip


Sirloin steak (Grilled 140 grams)

Half baked potato

1 tablespoon margarine

1 tablespoon of low fat sour cream

1 steamed zucchini

Skimmed milk (250 ml)

Steamed salmon fillet (150 grams)

Pine nuts (20 grams)

Sweet potato mash (150 grams)

Steamed Broccoli (40 grams)

Roast Chicken fillet steak (150 grams)

Brown rice (150 grams)

Broccoli (20 grams)

Carrots (20 grams

3 day meal plan for pregnant mother

This meal plan for an expectant mother was designed as firstly the calorie intake required daily is increased to supply the placenta and growing baby the required energy to grow healthily. An estimated 300 more calories in the second and third trimesters. I have chosen foods high in iron and folic acid as these are needed in abundance by both mother and baby. A pregnant woman needs 60mg of protein and 1200mg of calcium I have sought to incorporate this through lean servings of meat and fish daily as well as porridge oats with milk.

Three day meal plan for elderly male patient


Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


Cereal (Bran flakes) with 200 ml of skimmed milk with 25 grams of dried apricots

Cereal (Weetabix) with 200ml of skimmed milk with 25 grams of prunes

Cereal (Bran flakes) with 200 ml of skimmed milk


2 rice cakes with 2 slices of turkey breast

Slice of malt loaf with low fat spread/margarine and a sliced banana

2 wheat crackers with two slices of lean ham


Bowl of watercress soup with slice of whole grain toast

Steamed cod fillet and baked potato

Bowl of watercress soup with slice of whole grain toast


Sliced honey dew melon

One orange

Sliced honey dew melon


Beef lasagne with green beans and sweetcorn

Macaroni cheese and one chicken Gijon

Chicken ratatouille and steamed rice

Nutrition is an important determinant of health in an elderly person. I chose this meal plan as the meals are low in fat, refined sugar and sodium, and high in essential nutrients such as fibre, vitamins and minerals. Following this meal plan helps the individual avoid gout, stroke, high blood pressure, heart disease arthritis, cancer, respiratory disorders, and difficulty in passing stools, obesity and type 2 diabetes. One major concern in an elderly person is obtaining sufficient fluid intake.


Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


3 whole eggs (yolk and white) 45 grams of oats (with 350 ml of semi skimmed milk) with sliced banana and 20 grams of blueberries

1 litre of fruit squash/water

45 grams of oats (with 350 ml of semi skimmed milk) with sliced banana and 20 grams of raisins

2 slices of wholegrain bread/toast with peanut butter

3 whole eggs (yolk and white

1 litre of fruit squash/water

45 grams of oats (with 350 ml of semi skimmed milk) with sliced banana and 20 grams of dates

3 whole eggs (yolk and white)

2 slices of whole grain bread/toast with sunflower spread/margarine

1 litre of water/fruit squash


Grilled chicken breast (200 grams)

Medium baked potato (Grilled) with 200 grams of baked beans

40 grams green beans and 2 sliced vine tomatoes

500 ml water/sports isotonic drink

Grilled tuna fillet steak (200 grams)

Pepper and pea salsa (40 grams of red green and yellow peppers,10 grams of peas)

Durum wheat pasta (200 grams)

500ml of sports isotonic drink

Roasted sweet potato chunks/chips (150 grams)

Grilled chicken breast (200 grams)

Steamed spinach (50 grams) 2 sliced vine tomatoes

500ml of sports isotonic drink


Steamed salmon fillet (200 grams)

150 grams brown rice

Grilled broccoli (25 grams)

1 litre of fruit squash/water

Sirloin beef steak (100 grams)

Brown Rice (200 grams) Steamed Broccoli (20 grams) Sweetcorn (20 grams)

1 litre of water/fruit squash

Steamed salmon fillet (200 grams)

Durum wheat pasta (200 grams)

Mixed side salad ( 15 grams of lettuce,15 grams vine tomatoes, 15 grams mixed peppers)

3 day meal plan for Teenage Athlete

Case in point average height and weight of 17 year old male to be 5’10 and 10 stones/63 kg – This body mass index falls in the 50th percentile of the mean average

Taking into account average male calorific requirement (2500 calories), this is to be exceeded by around 35 – 65 % based on exceeded average energy expenditure for athletic performance/training as well as a general faster metabolic rate for a teenage male opposed to a mature male. The meal plan incorporates 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day and a higher than average protein content mostly made up of chicken and fish and only one portion of red meat as to reach the protein threshold from a higher proportion of red meat is deemed generally as unhealthy, causing over a long period higher blood pressure and increased risk of stomach and bowel cancer. Due to the athletic activities to be undertaken there is an emphasis on consuming fluids and an excess and varied selection of carbohydrates is consumed daily. The diet is low in saturated fat and sugar

TAQ 2)

Type 2 diabetes can result from an inadequate diet, an inadequate diet can be defined as a deficiency, and a deficiency can be too great or too little of one specific food group in a healthy diet. Too much sugar in a person’s diet is a major factor in contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. Specifically sucrose, sucrose and sugar are not actually required by the body so their consumption can be deemed as a deficiency in itself. Furthermore the excess consumption of sugar can lead to an increase in weight and obesity which in turn increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Higher than normal blood glucose levels cumulatively over a long period leads to insulin resistance.

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Atherosclerosis, the clogging of the arteries can be a secondary effect of having type 2 diabetes but in most cases is caused by too high a fat content in one’s diet, more specifically consuming too much saturated fat often found in processed foods and a lack of unsaturated fats with high density lipids and beneficial cholesterol lowering effect on the body. A diet with a frequency of fruit and vegetables has a negating effect as well as oily fish, nuts and seeds, sunflower and seed oils.

Rickets is usually caused by a lack of vitamin D and/or calcium. Physiologically most of our vitamin D comes from sunlight not our food and the process of calcium absorption is very dependent on vitamin D levels in the body. However we do garner some vitamin D from food. Eggs, oily fish and cereals are all good sources of vitamin D and deficiencies in these food types regardless of UV exposure could contribute to the onset of rickets. Milk and other dairy products have the highest calcium content and a lack of dairy as well as green vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage can have a detrimental effect on calcium uptake in the body.

TAQ 3)

  1. Digestion is necessary as it breaks down the size of food to make digestion a more efficient process food is broken down into smaller constituent parts so the surface area for the active sites for enzymes to occur increases. Proteins are broken down into peptides, which are then broken down into single amino acids that allow absorption into the bloodstream through the small intestine. Absorption occurs when the food enters the body as the food molecules pass through a layer of cells and into the bodies’ tissues. This occurs in the small intestine which has many villi that are specialised for absorption. Assimilation occurs when the food molecules becomes part of the bodies tissue.





Mouth/Buccal cavity

Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth. Mastication involves the teeth breaking down food and release of saliva.

The breaking down of food is essential to optimum digestion and the absorption of nutrients. The salivary glands contain an enzyme called amylase which starts the process of digestion in the mouth.


The oesophagus is a muscular pipe that delivers food from the mouth to the stomach

The process of the movement of food is automatic done through muscular contractions with certain


The role of the stomach is to store and digest food with gastric juices.

Allows chemical digestion through pepsins converting food to proteins. Mechanical digestion through muscular stomach layers churning. As well as a non-specific defence against microbes.

Small intestine

Onward movement of stomach contents by peristalsis. The continued digestion of carbohydrates proteins and fats by villi.

Carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, proteins are broken down to amino acids. Fats are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.

Large intestine

Absorption of water through osmosis until faecal matter is achieved. Minerals salts and some drugs are also still absorbed at this point. Also synthesise of vitamin k and folic acid occur by microbial activity.

The importance of the large intestine allows undigested to enter from the small intestine. It then reabsorbs water that is used in digestion and eliminates undigested food and fibre. This causes food waste products to harden and form faeces.


The opening excretes waste product as faeces from the colon.

The anus allows the mass movement of waste product to occur to allow space for new food to enter the stomach and digesting contents to move from the small to large in intestine.

Digestive juice

Site of production

Enzymes in juice

Function of enzyme


Salivary gland


Breaks down (hydrolyses) starch and sugar into maltose. It also digests carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into smaller disaccharide units, eventually converting them into monosaccharides such as glucose.

Pancreatic juice



Converts sucrose to disaccharides and monosaccharides

Gastric juice

Gastric gland


Digests proteins breaking them down into peptides. Pepsinogen is released into the stomach and combined with hydrochloric acid to create Pepsin, Pepsin is also released into the bloodstream to break down some of the still undigested fragments of protein released by the small intestine.

Digestive system organ



The function of the stomach is to allow the required storage time for enzymes within gastric juices to act upon the stomach contents. Pepsins convert proteins to polypeptides. Like the mouth there is an element of mechanical digestion occurring in the stomach. Three muscular layers compose the stomach lining, the churning action of these layers help to digest stomach contents. Gastric juice is also added to turn the contents into ‘chyme’. The stomach has some secondary functions as well, it provides a defence against microbes and allows preparation for iron absorption by solubising iron salts and secreting the hormone gastrin.


The intestines, both small and large, transport food and digest nutrients from food and absorb these into the blood stream. The small intestine is about 1 inch in diameter and about 10 feet long in a living body. It extends from the stomach to the large intestine and consists of 3 major regions: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach, bile from the liver and pancreatic juices from the pancreas. These substances mix in the duodenum to further digest food .The jejunum is a longer region of intestine where most of the absorption of nutrients occurs. Finally, food passes into the ileum, the longest region of the small intestine where harder to digest nutrients are lastly broken down before food passes into the large intestine.

The large intestine receives faecal matter from the small intestine through the ileocecal sphincter. The smooth walls of the large intestine absorb water from faecal matter as well as vitamins released from the fermentation of faeces by bacteria.

Faecal matter passes from the cecum into the colon, the largest region of the large intestine. The transverse colon then carries faeces towards the descending colon to the S-shaped sigmoid colon and rectum.

.The rectum stores faeces until they are ready to be defecated.


The oesophagus is the muscular tube around 25 – 30 cm long that transports food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach. The muscular layers that form the oesophagus are pressed together at both ends by the sphincter muscles, to prevent food or liquids leaking from the stomach back into the oesophagus or mouth. When the patient swallows, the sphincters temporarily relax to allow passage. The Oesophagus also acts to quell any reflux from the stomach, stopping stomach contents from being ejected back through the mouth.

TAQ 5)

The digestive tract, consisting of the stomach, small and large intestines. The stomach is made of three layers of smooth muscle fibres, an outer layer of longitudinal fibres middle layer of circular fibres and an inner layer of oblique muscle fibres. This arrangement allows for the churning effect of gastric activity.

When the stomach is empty the mucous membrane lining is thrown into folds or rugae when the stomach has contents these folds are ironed out.Numerous gastric glands are situated below the surface in the mucuous membrane.

The small intestine also has layers,the peritoneum is a double layer and connects the jejunum and ileum to the abdominal wall.The attatchment is short and fan shaped,large blood vessels and nerves pass between the two layers.Their is also a mucousa present here it contains villi and microvill it has a large surface area and many folds.Their are circular folds which act to mix chyme,the villi in this mucousal layer contibute to final stages of digestion.There are also lymph nodes within the mucousa which release defense cells against ingested antigens.

The large intestine also has a mucosa ; made of simple columnar epithelial tissue. The mucosa is smooth, unlike the small intestine lacks villi however it does have a large number of mucous glands secreting mucus into the hollow lumen as to lubricate the surface of the large intestine and protect it from rough food particles. Surrounding the mucosa is a layer of blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue, the submucosa, which is there to support the other layers of the large intestine.

The muscularis layer surrounds the submucosa and contains many layers of visceral muscle cells that contract and move the large intestine.

Finally, the serosa forms the outermost layer. The serosa is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial tissue that secretes watery serous fluid to lubricate the surface of the large intestine. protecting it from friction between abdominal organs and the surrounding muscles and bones of the lower torso.


Gerard J. Tortola, Mark Nielsen Principles of Human Anatomy, 13th Edition December 2013 – 2014

http://www.valuepenguin.com/nutrition. Last accessed 10/03/2015

John Evans, Alison Lansley and Michael J. Sanderson, (2006), Biology A level

Richard Parsons (2010) AS/A2 Level Biology AQA Complete Revision & Practice

Smith, A. (2012). Get instant biology help. Available: http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/ Last accessed 05/03/2015

Waugh, Anne and Grant, Allison (2006) Ross and Wilson: Anatomy and physiology in health and illness. (10th edition). Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.


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